Category Archives: Perspectives (VEN)

Haiti: tensions between aid relief and development in the health sector

Nicolas Lemay-Hébert • Senior Lecturer in the International Development Department, University of Birmingham (UK)

Andréanne Martel • Collaborative Research Program Officer at the Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC) in Ottawa (Canada)

Patrick Robitaille • Associate expert of the Canadian Research Institute on Humanitarian Crisis and Aid

N. Lemay-Hébert

A. Martel

P. Robitaille

Since 2010 and the surge of aid on Haiti, the Caribbean island has undoubtedly become the symbol of the failure of major international programmes. For the three authors the emergency and development actors’ conflicting objectives are one of the keys to this failure.

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Humanitarians in the age of counter terrorism: rejected by rebels, co-opted by States

Michiel Hofman • Médecins Sans Frontières

M. Hofman

Because rhetoric – and practice – of the fight against terrorism drives rebel movements to the edges of International Humanitarian Law, NGOs would be more and more under the influence of States. The analysis developed by Michiel Hofman is based on concrete examples permitting us to be quite often – so to speak – in the midst of humanitarian negotiations.

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The Rohingya refugee crisis: forgotten then, forgotten now

Tarik Kadir • Secours Islamique France

T. Kadir

Lifted with difficulty to the category of major crisis, the situation of the Rohingya refugees at the border of Myanmar and Bangladesh is forever bogging down. Whilst the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, has declared that “this seemed to be a classical example of ethnic cleansing”, Western chanceries are hesitating, hindered by the ambiguous position of Aung San Suu Kyi, Nobel Peace Prize winner. Tarik Kadir, engaged in the field alongside Secours Islamique France, explains to us the situation, its origins and its perspectives.

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Humanitarian aid in Palestine: reconsidering neutrality through child protection

Joan Deas • Doctorante en sciences politiques (Sciences Po Grenoble, France) et ancienne chargée de recherche au Gaza Community Mental Health Programme   

Elise Reslinger • Doctorante en sciences sociales et politiques (université de Bath, Royaume-Uni) et ancienne chargée de protection pour l’Office de secours et de travaux des Nations unies pour les réfugiés de Palestine dans le Proche-Orient (UNRWA)   

J. Deas

E. Reslinger

In November 1947 the Partition Plan for Palestine was adopted, which would open the chapter of the Arab-Israeli wars. Seventy years later, the humanitarian situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory continues to deteriorate, particularly in the Gaza Strip, caught up in a process of “de-development”. Joan Deas and Elise Reslinger, through the lens of Palestinian children protection, invite us to think and question the current aid paradigm, nowadays ossified by a managerial approach favoring a lack of accountability from the occupying power.

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Humanitarian aid as a deterrent in Greece

Arjun Claire • Humanitarian Affairs consultant   

A. Claire

Humanitarian aid has often been instrumentalised by States. But more recently, it may have been employed as a tool to manage the “refugee crisis” in Europe’s frontline Member States. Taking Greece as a reference, the author contends that humanitarian aid may not only be an instrument to address the consequences of EU’s restrictive migration policies, but could even be a component of a broader strategy to deter further arrivals to European shores. He argues that the emergency in Greece is a construct, which legitimises the presence of humanitarian actors, and by extension, validates the existence of substandard living conditions. Their disengagement being difficult to envisage, Arjun Claire proposes that humanitarian actors must mitigate the consequences of their implication by actively resisting attempts towards the sustenance of a discursive emergency.

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Sheltering, hosting or receiving refugees: the unresolved ambiguities of the La Linière refugee camp

Franck Esnée • Ancien chef de mission Médecins Sans Frontières en France   
Michaël Neuman • Directeur d’études, Centre de réflexion sur l’action et les savoirs humanitaires (Crash)/Médecins Sans Frontières   

F. Esnée

M. Neuman

Frank Esnée and Michaël Neuman invite us here to follow up on previous work. The latter and Angélique Muller already wrote an article about the social and political actors of Grande-Synthe and its refugee settlement, Basroch. Following the dismantlement of this camp and the resettlement of refugees in the new La Linière camp, in the spring 2016, the authors look back on a year of hesitations or even inconsistencies, which say a lot about our relationship to the refugees.

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Yemen: a conflict behind closed doors

Francis Frison-Roche • Chercheur au CNRS (Centre national de la recherche scientifique), Université Paris 2-CERSA, ancien directeur du projet « Aide à la transition démocratique au Yémen »

F. Frison-Roche

In the shadow of Syria, Yemen has been
dragged over the last two years into an increasingly radical and deadly war in which the international community and the media have shown very
little interest. François Frison-Roche helps us to understand the causes and origins of this conflict
in the hope of saving it from the oblivion into
which it is sinking.
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World Humanitarian Summit: a lost opportunity?

Antonio Donini • Humanitarian researcher and analyst

antonio-donini

A. Donini

Did the World Humanitarian Summit which was the major topic covered in the last issue of Humanitarian Alternatives – published just a few days before the event – hold all its promises or only give birth to a mouse, as we then feared? Antonio Donini delivers here a more subtle analysis, to be true, slightly less disenchanted, but redoubtably argumented. Mentioning at the same time the very recent United Nations summit relating to migrants, the latter being the main theme of this new issue, major cause for which there is unfortunately so little to rejoice about, the author brings forward the hidden stake of the actual humanitarian system: its institutional reform.

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Engaging with National Authorities: Médecins Sans Frontières’s experience in Guinea during the Ebola epidemic

Marc Poncin • Unité de Recherche sur les Enjeux et Pratiques Humanitaires, Médecins sans Frontières/Centre opérationnel Genève

marc-poncin

M. Poncin

The Ebola epidemic continues to be instructive. This was indeed the conclusion of the “Focus” on this subject in our inaugural issue: the magnitude of this unprecedented crisis, its failures and successes, required that there were lessons to be learned. This is what Marc Poncin, the former coordinator for Doctors Without Borders (MSF) in Guinea-Conakry, does here as he looks back on the stormy but ultimately constructive relations with the country’s authorities.

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Humanitarian action in times of “war on terror”

Jean-Christophe Rufin • Médecin et écrivain, membre de l’Académie française

J.-C. Rufin

In 1991, Jean-Christophe Rufin published L’Empire et les nouveaux barbares (The Empire and the new barbarians). Two years after the fall of the Berlin wall, he who was then vice-president of Médecins Sans Frontières sent back to back the thesis of The End of History developed by Francis Fukuyama and that of the Clash of Civilisations by Samuel Huntington. He announced that a North-South divide would risk succeeding East-West rivalry, one between the Empire –this now pacified world where wealth was concentrated– and the South, inhabited by those who would soon be considered as the avatars of the “barbarians” of the Roman Empire, and menaced by poverty and wars. Long maintained on the outskirts of the free and rich world, they would not be long before expressing their anger, their desperation, and their need for solidarity. After the alert of 9/11, the Empire did not understand, starting a “war on terror” that would only stir up the fire. Twenty-five years later, in the aftermath of the attacks in Paris and Brussels, but also Bamako, Peshawar or Kabul, the analysis of Jean-Christophe Rufin has lost nothing of its acuteness.

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