Category Archives: Bibliographic resources

Research and humanitarian aid: bibliographic resources

In addition to the July 2021 issue of Humanitarian Alternatives, which is dedicated to the work relationship between research and humanitarian actors, we have compiled and regularly update a non-exhaustive reading list of articles and online resources in French and English on this topic. Do not hesitate to let us know of any resources that you think are relevant.

Happy reading!

Last update: 21/07/2021

Disclaimer: Humanitarian Alternatives cannot be held responsible for the arguments developed in the articles listed below, nor for the non-maintenance of internet links to access their content.

Lessons learned from conducting six multi-country mixed-methods effectiveness research studies on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions in humanitarian response

Daniele Lantagne et al., BMC Public Health, 21/560, 22 March 2021
Provision of safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) to affected populations in humanitarian emergencies is necessary for dignity and communicable disease control. Additional evidence on WASH interventions is needed in humanitarian settings. Between 2008 and 2019, we completed six multi-country, mixed-methods effectiveness studies in humanitarian response on six different WASH interventions. In each evaluation, we conducted: key informant interviews; water point observations and water quality testing; household surveys with recipients, including survey and water quality testing; focus group discussions; and/or, secondary data analysis. The research questions were: “What is the effectiveness of [intervention] in reducing the risk of diarrhea/cholera transmission; and, what programmatic factors lead to higher effectiveness?”

The Evidence Base on Anticipatory Action

Lena Weingärtner, Tobias Pforr and Emily Wilkinson, Overseas Development Institute and World Food Programme, 2020
WFP and ODI review the evidence base on Anticipatory Action (AA) and conclude that to achieve an effective scale up of the approach and ensure Anticipatory Action achieves the intended changes on both disaster response systems and people’s vulnerability and resilience to climate change, robust empirical data and a strong monitoring, evaluation and learning agenda are necessary.

Health research capacity building of health workers in fragile and conflict-affected settings: a scoping review of challenges, strengths, and recommendations

Rania Mansour et al., Health Research Policy and Systems, 19(1), December 2021
Fragile and conflict-affected settings (FCAS) have a strong need to improve the capacity of local health workers to conduct health research in order to improve health policy and health outcomes. Health research capacity building (HRCB) programmes are ideal to equip health workers with the needed skills and knowledge to design and lead health-related research initiatives. The study aimed to review the characteristics of HRCB studies in FCASs in order to identify their strengths and weaknesses, and to recommend future directions for the field.

Examining Conditions that Influence Evaluation use within a Humanitarian Non-Governmental Organization in Burkina Faso (West Africa)

Léna D’Ostie-Racine, Christian Dagenais and Valéry Ridde, Systemic Practice and Action Research, 34(2), 21 November 2019
Program evaluation can support capacity building and inform practice and policy. Yet long-term efforts to ensure evaluation use (EU) in the humanitarian sector are seldom documented, leaving much uncertainty about EU conditions. This study examined conditions that influenced EU by stakeholders of a humanitarian non-governmental organization (NGO) in Burkina Faso striving to base its health care program on solid evidence. Analyses focussed on characteristics of five broad conditions of research use previously documented. Results demonstrate that EU was facilitated by intended users with proactive attitudes, research experience, and willingness to participate in program evaluations. Also helpful was an organizational culture that valued learning, feedback, and accountability, wherein leaders collaborated toward common goals.

Action to protect the independence and integrity of global health research

Katerini T. Storeng et al., MJ Global Health, 4(3), June 2019
Researchers are responsible for conducting research ethically and with integrity. Yet, without strong and reliable institutional support, they are often in a vulnerable position when faced with vested interests. What action is needed to avoid undermining independent and critical research findings? What kind of institutional structures and practices might support researchers in dealing with the ethical and political dilemmas associated with the dissemination of (potentially) contested research findings and evaluation results? To start a discussion on ways forward, we invited input from an international network of global health, health systems and policy researchers from diverse disciplines. We discuss suggestions, endorsed by more than 200 researchers based in 40 different countries, on how the organisations that commission, undertake and publish research and evaluations can safeguard independence and integrity.

L’analyse d’une recherche-action. Combinaison d’approches dans le domaine de la santé au Burkina Faso

Bony Roger Sylvestre Aka, Valéry Ridde et Ludovic Queuille, in Valéry Ridde et Christian Dagenais (dir.), Évaluation des interventions de santé mondiale. Méthodes avancées, Éditions science et bien commun, 2019, p. 125-153
Only available in French
Il s’agit d’analyser la démarche de mise en œuvre d’une recherche-action en combinant une analyse externe menée par une personne extérieure à la recherche-action à une analyse interne (analyse réflexive) faite par les acteurs et actrices de la recherche-action.

Household-level effects of providing forecast-based cash in anticipation of extreme weather events: Quasi-experimental evidence from humanitarian interventions in the 2017 floods in Bangladesh

Clemens Gros et al., International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, vol. 41, 2019
In 2017, Bangladesh experienced the worst floods in recent decades. Based on a forecast and pre-defined trigger level, a Red Cross Red Crescent project distributed an unconditional cash grant of BDT 5000 (USD 60 equivalent) to 1039 poor households in highly vulnerable, flood-prone communities in the Brahmaputra river basin before an early flood peak. Systems that can deliver forecast-based cash grants are a potential adaptation strategy to deal with changes in extreme events linked to climate change. This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental study, based on a post-disaster household survey. The research assesses the effectiveness of the forecast-based cash distribution in helping beneficiaries to take preparatory early actions and reduce the negative impacts of the flood on their health, well-being, assets and livelihoods.

Reducing flood impacts through forecast-based action. Entry points for social protection systems in Kenya

Lena Weingartner et al., ODI, 2019
This paper examines the potential for scaling up forecast-based early action (FbA) in Kenya through existing social protection systems, with a focus on reducing flood risk. The authors assess the components of a flood FbA system: flood forecasting capabilities; the types of action that could reduce impact and the institutions that would need to be involved in taking them; options for using social protection systems to deliver support ahead of time, and questions around targeting the most vulnerable; and potential financing instruments.

Population health intervention research training: the value of public health internships and mentorship

Anne-Marie Hamelin and Gilles Paradis, Public Health Reviews, 39(1), December 2018
Better alignment between academia and public health practice and policies are critical to improve public health actions. Training of future researchers to address complex issues and to conduct transdisciplinary and collaborative research will help improve this alignment. In this paper, we describe the role of internship placements and mentorship for trainees’ skills development in population health intervention research and the benefits of embedding research trainees within public health organizations.

How Burkina Faso used evidence in deciding to launch its policy of free healthcare for children under five and women in 2016

Valéry Ridde and Pierre Yaméogo, Palgrave Communications, 4(1), December 2018
In March 2016, the newly elected government of Burkina Faso decided on a major change in health financing policy: it abolished direct payment for healthcare for women and children under five. Unlike other countries in Africa, this decision took a long time, given that the first pilot projects for this policy instrument date from 2008. This article describes that political process and presents a reflexive analysis by two authors who were at the heart of events between 2008 and 2018. The analysis shows that, while the decision took a long time and certainly amounted to a policy paradigm shift, it was the result of a complex series of events and activities whose specific contributions are difficult to identify.

As local as possible, as international as necessary: understanding capacity and complementarity in humanitarian action

Veronique Barbelet, Overseas Development Institute, 2018
Many international humanitarian organizations have decided to localize humanitarian action. However, the localization agenda has been interpreted and understood differently by actors at the international and local levels. This is due to a lack of clarity around key terms, but also the understanding and assessment of actors’ capacities to respond to crises. This working paper outlines the key trends and issues highlighted in the literature on localization. It also reviews operational examples and provides important implications and recommendations for current and future practice.

Preparing for Ebola outbreaks: not without the social sciences!

Bertrand Taverne for the Coordination Committee of the West Africa Ebola Social and Human Sciences Network, Global Health Promotion, vol. 22(2), June 2015, p.5-6
As with any scientific discipline, the social sciences require dedicated resources and time to study these social aspects and to support the responses to health system failures or the public’s mistrust. In several countries at risk of epidemic in West Africa, social science teams have conducted research on EVD and participated in designing the national response. They have formed a network to promote information sharing and to develop a regional approach to the epidemic; however, to date, most of these teams are still struggling to find the funding required to conduct crucial studies. There is an urgent need to financially and institutionally support social science research on a regional scale, in countries at risk of any epidemic. Decision makers must take note and allocate funding to ensure appropriate actions are taken.

Forecast-based financing: an approach for catalyzing humanitarian action based on extreme weather and climate forecasts

Erin Coughlan de Perez et al., Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, vol. 15, 2015, p.1-10
Disaster risk reduction efforts traditionally focus on long-term preventative measures or post-disaster response. Outside of these, there are many short-term actions, such as evacuation, that can be implemented in the period of time between a warning and a potential disaster to reduce the risk of impacts. However, this precious window of opportunity is regularly overlooked in the case of climate and weather forecasts, which can indicate heightened risk of disaster but are rarely used to initiate preventative action. Barriers range from the protracted debate over the best strategy for intervention to the inherent uncomfortableness on the part of donors to invest in a situation that will likely arise but is not certain. In general, it is unclear what levels of forecast probability and magnitude are “worth” reacting to. Here, we propose a novel forecast-based financing system to automatically trigger action based on climate forecasts or observations. The system matches threshold forecast probabilities with appropriate actions, disburses required funding when threshold forecasts are issued, and develops standard operating procedures that contain the mandate to act when these threshold forecasts are issued. We detail the methods that can be used to establish such a system, and provide illustrations from several pilot cases. Ultimately, such a system can be scaled up in disaster-prone areas worldwide to improve effectiveness at reducing the risk of disaster.

A Dangerous Delay: The cost of late response to early warnings in the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa

Oxfam, jointly with Save the Children, 2013
More than 13 million people are still affected by the crisis in the Horn of Africa. There were clear early warning signs many months in advance, yet there was insufficient response until it was far too late. This briefing, published jointly by Oxfam and Save the Children, examines the factors that allowed a drought in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Djibouti to develop into a full-scale crisis of hunger and livelihoods, such that millions of people suffered and thousands died. Its main focus is the response of international aid system, although the ultimate importance of enhanced resilience for the communities themselves is recognised. Recommendations: A change in approach to chronic drought situations is needed: managing the risks, not the crisis. This means that the all actors national governments, donors, NGOs, and the UN need to act decisively on information from early warning systems and not wait for certainty before responding; actively seek to reduce drought risk in all activities, ensuring that long-term development interventions increase resilience and adapt to the changing context; and change organisational structures, invest in people and provide flexible funding in order to break down the divisions between humanitarian and development work.

L’Outil diagnostique de l’action en partenariat : fondements, élaboration et validation

Angèle Bilodeau et al., Canadian Journal of Public Health, 102(4), 5 avril 2011, p. 298-302
Only available in French
L’action sur les déterminants sociaux de la santé requiert que les acteurs de santé publique s’engagent dans des actions en partenariats intersectoriels. Un frein important à une argumentation convaincante sur l’action en partenariat est le manque d’outils valides pour en évaluer la qualité. Devant cette lacune, l’Outil présenté dans cet article évalue les processus de l’action collective autour des dimensions clés de son efficacité.

Promouvoir la recherche face à la consultance. Autour de l’expérience du Lasdel (Niger-Bénin)

Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan, Cahiers d’études africaines, n° 202-203, 2011, p. 511-528
Only available in French
La recherche en sciences sociales en Afrique même souffre de divers handicaps parmi lesquels l’omniprésence de la consultance, financée par les institutions de développement, qui accapare le temps des universitaires africains. Les règles du jeu de la consultance sont assez différentes de celles de la recherche, mais les frontières sont le plus souvent brouillées au détriment de la recherche, qui s’éloigne alors des standards internationaux. Mais cette évolution n’est pas fatale. L’expérience du Lasdel, laboratoire de sciences sociales nigéro-béninois, montre qu’il est possible de développer en Afrique même des pôles de recherche de niveau international, évitant les pièges de la consultance, à condition de respecter certains principes.

Operational research in low-income countries: what, why, and how?

Rony Zachariah et al., The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 9(11), November 2009, p.711-717
Operational research is increasingly being discussed at institutional meetings, donor forums, and scientific conferences, but limited published information exists on its role from a disease-control and programme perspective. We suggest a definition of operational research, clarify its relevance to infectious-disease control programmes, and describe some of the enabling factors and challenges for its integration into programme settings. Particularly in areas where the disease burden is high and resources and time are limited, investment in operational research and promotion of a culture of inquiry are needed so that health care can become more efficient. Thus, research capacity needs to be developed, specific resources allocated, and different stakeholders (academic institutions, national programme managers, and non-governmental organisations) brought together in promoting operational research.

Higher education for sustainability by means of transdisciplinary case studies: an innovative approach for solving complex, real-world problems

Gerald Steiner and Alfred Posch, Journal of Cleaner Production, 14/9, 2006, p.877-890
Sustainable development and the interplay between its ecological, social, and economic dimensions can be regarded as a highly complex task. As a logical consequence, educating for sustainable development also has a complex character. Traditional unidirectional educational processes are only of very limited use when educating for sustainable development: Firstly, the initial state of the considered system (case) cannot be described precisely; secondly, the target state of the system is also not sufficiently known; and thirdly, the process between initial state and target state and potential barriers that might have to be passed are also not exactly known. Pure analytically based solutions are therefore, not available; a dynamic mutual learning process is required instead.

Evaluation, knowledge management, best practices, and high-quality lessons learned

Michael Quinn Patton, American Journal of Evaluation, 22(3), 2001, p.329-336
In the endlessly hyped knowledge age of the new millennium, evaluators are being asked to generate lessons learned and best practices. Pressure to do so seems only likely to increase. At the end of this article, I’ll suggest a way of bringing some increased rigor to evaluators’ use of these terms, but first I’ll examine and opine on popular usage and the current context.

The SAGE handbook of action research. Participative inquiry and practice

Peter Reason and Hilary Bradbury (eds.), Thousand Oaks, 2001
Building on the strength of the seminal first edition, The Sage Handbook of Action Research has been completely updated to bring chapters in line with the latest qualitative and quantitative approaches in this field of social inquiry. Editors Peter Reason and Hilary Bradbury have introduced new part commentaries that draw links between different contributions and show their interrelations. Throughout, the contributing authors really engage with the pragmatics of doing action research and demonstrate how this can be a rich and rewarding reflective practice. They tackle questions of how to integrate knowledge with action, how to collaborate with co-researchers in the field, and how to present the necessarily ‘messy’ components in a coherent fashion. The organization of the volume reflects the many different issues and levels of analysis represented.

The transdisciplinary evolution of the university condition for sustainable development

Basarab Nicolescu, document presented at the International congress of the international association of universities, Université Chulalongkorn, Bangkok, 12-14 November 1997
If the universities intend to be valid actors in sustainable development they have first to recognize the emergence of a new type of knowledge – the transdisciplinarity knowledge – complementary to the traditional, disciplinary knowledge. This process implies a necessary multi-dimensional opening of the University: towards the civil society; towards the other places of production of the new knowledge; towards the cyber-space-time; towards the aim of universality; towards a redefinition of values governing its own existence.

Sexual and gender-based violence: bibliographic resources

In addition to the March 2021 issue of Humanitarian Alternatives, dedicated to sexual and gender-based violence in the humanitarian sector, we have compiled and regularly update a reading list of articles and online resources in French and English on this topic. This non-exhaustive list includes contributions from the social and political sciences, general press and popular science articles, activity reports, videos and news reports. Do not hesitate to let us know of any resources that you think are relevant.

Happy reading!

Last update: 27/04/2021

Disclaimer: Humanitarian Alternatives cannot be held responsible for the arguments developed in the articles listed below, nor for the non-maintenance of internet links to access their content.

Press articles

Oxfam accused of ‘rotten’ work culture in Congo by former staff

6 April 2021, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English
Claims of sexual exploitation, sexual harassment, bullying, fraud, and breaches of safeguarding procedures detailed in a February letter to Oxfam chiefs had built up over years with an organisational culture that made it difficult – and dangerous – for employees to report misconduct, five whistleblowers who worked for Oxfam and who signed the letter have told The New Humanitarian.

Oxfam: UK halts funding over new sexual exploitation claims

7 April 2021, BBC News
Only available in English
The UK has suspended aid funding for Oxfam again after fresh allegations of sexual exploitation and bullying were made against staff. Two Oxfam workers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were suspended last week following the latest claims. The charity had only been allowed to start reapplying for aid funds in March.

Then and Now: 25 years of sexual exploitation and abuse

11 February 2021, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English
Last year, our investigation with the Thomson Reuters Foundation uncovered allegations of extensive sexual exploitation and abuse during the 2018-2020 Ebola response in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It was far from the first time we had reported on this widespread, chronic problem – whether at the hands of aid workers or UN peacekeepers. From Bosnia to Haiti to Central African Republic, such abuses have long stained the reputation of the UN and international NGOs, undermining basic trust in the institutions meant to protect and assist people in crisis. The crux of the issue often comes down to imbalances of power – and the power relations between those providing the aid and those receiving it could not be more stark in humanitarian relief. Beginning in the 1990s, this timeline exposes a long cycle of impunity: grave abuses followed by statements of shock and outrage, then belated efforts to stem the problem before another revelation of abuse, either in the same country or in a different part of the world.

Abus sexuels-Ebola : OCHA encourage les humanitaires à œuvrer avec « dignité et intégrité »

15 octobre 2020, Actualités.cd
Only available in French
Dans une déclaration publiée le 13 octobre, le coordonnateur humanitaire David Mclachlan-Karr a réagi aux récentes allégations d’exploitation et d’abus sexuels attribuées aux employés de la riposte à la 10e épidémie d’Ebola dans l’Est de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC). Il a encouragé le gouvernement congolais à poursuivre les enquêtes et les humanitaires à poursuivre l’offre de leurs services dans le respect de la dignité et intégrité des personnes bénéficiaires.

Why the UN must set up an independent body to tackle sexual abuse

8 october 2020, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

RDC: sous le choc des révélations, les humanitaires veulent en finir avec le fléau des abus sexuels

2 octobre 2020, VOA Afrique
Only available in French
Les acteurs humanitaires cherchent à en finir avec le fléau des abus sexuels au sein de leurs équipes, après le choc des révélations d’un nouveau scandale lors de la lutte contre la dernière épidémie d’Ebola dans l’Est de la République démocratique du Congo.

Congo ‘jobs-for-sex’ expose prompts calls for greater scrutiny of aid workers

1 October 2020, Reuters
Only available in English
Vetting aid workers more closely and giving women more power is critical to tackle sex abuse in humanitarian crises as exposed in a joint investigation by the Thomson Reuters Foundation and The New Humanitarian, aid experts said on Wednesday.

Ebola en RDC : l’OMS et de grandes ONG au centre d’un scandale sexuel

30 septembre 2020, Jeune Afrique
Only available in French
Des agents de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé et de plusieurs ONG sont accusés d’abus sexuels à l’encontre de plusieurs dizaines de femmes, dans une enquête réalisée par The New Humanitarian et la Fondation Thomson Reuters.

Power, poverty, and aid: The mix that fuelled sex abuse claims in Congo

29 septembre 2020, The New Humanitarian
Also available in French
Sex-for-jobs schemes were an open secret during the Democratic Republic of Congo’s recent Ebola outbreak, half a dozen senior UN officials and NGO workers told reporters from The New Humanitarian and the Thomson Reuters Foundation. Strategies put in place to stop such abuses largely failed during the outbreak that swept through the country from 2018 to 2020, aid officials and workers, gender analysts, and researchers who examined the response told reporters in nearly a year of interviews. Reports commissioned by organisations and donors also cited abuse concerns.

More than 50 women accuse aid workers of sex abuse in Congo Ebola crisis

29 septembre 2020, The New Humanitarian
Also available in French
More than 50 women have accused Ebola aid workers from the World Health Organization and leading NGOs of sexual exploitation and abuse in the Democratic Republic of Congo, an investigation by The New Humanitarian and the Thomson Reuters Foundation revealed.

Sexual abuse in aid sector still ‘widespread’

17 juillet 2020, Devex
Only available in English
Almost two years on from a landmark summit on safeguarding in the aid sector, sexual abuse and exploitation are still “widespread” and continuing unreported, according to experts.

Opinion: Global aid worker register to prevent abuse risks doing more harm than good

10 July 2020, Devex
Only available in English
Strengthening preemployment checks to prevent perpetrators from being hired is a key part of the response to sexual exploitation, abuse, and harassment, or SEAH, in the aid sector. But the framework proposed by the U.K Department for International Development in its consultation on the Aid Worker Registration Scheme does little to tackle the core issue and risks precipitating new human rights violations with respect to workers’ rights, data protection, and privacy.

Sexual abuse ‘endemic’ within aid sector

31 July 2018, Al Jazeera
Only available in English
Sexual abuse and exploitation of some of the world’s most vulnerable people by humanitarian workers is “endemic”, according to a new report by British members of parliament.

Affaires d’abus sexuels : les ONG ne se soucient pas vraiment de la confiance des populations locales

26 avril 2018, Slate.fr
Only available in French
Depuis deux mois, les révélations d’abus sexuels commis sur le terrain par des membres d’ONG s’accumulent. Seulement, la prise de conscience ne s’est pas accompagnée d’une plus grande implication des bénéficiaires de l’aide humanitaire.

The humanitarian MeToo moment: Where do we go from here?

23 March 2018, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English
What happens when you bring together an Oxfam executive, a whistleblower, an investigator, and representatives from NGO and donor organisations to discuss what’s next in the aid sector’s #MeToo moment? A conversation that, as moderator and executive director of IRIN Heba Aly described it, explored the many “layers of gray” that are often overlooked when discussing how to curb sexual abuse and misconduct within the humanitarian sector.

Urgent action needed to enforce zero tolerance of sexual exploitation by aid workers

21 March 2018, The Conversation
Only available in English

Violences sexuelles par des humanitaires : les ONG peinent à trouver des solutions

1 mars 2018, Le Monde
Only available in French
Après chaque scandale, les ONG mettent en place de nouvelles mesures, chartes et commissions. Sans parvenir à empêcher de nouvelles affaires.

Scandale Oxfam : peut-on vraiment contrôler la vie privée des employés dans les ONG ?

20 février 2018, The Conversation
Only available in French

The Oxfam scandal does not justify demonising the entire aid sector

17 February 2018, The Guardian
Only available in English

Ex-Oxfam official denies organising orgies as Haiti opens probe

16 February 2018, France 24
Only available in English

Comment MSF lutte contre les abus sexuels

15 février 2018, Le Parisien
Only available in French
Dix-neuf personnes ont été licenciées l’an passé à Médecins sans frontières pour abus ou harcèlement sexuel. La directrice juridique de l’organisation humanitaire explique comment l’entreprise aide en interne à la révélation des faits.

Oxfam : la presse britannique parle d’un scandale sexuel “plus important que l’affaire Weinstein”

12 février 2018, Le Monde
Only available in French

Oxfam Haiti sex claims: Charity ‘failed in moral leadership’

11 février 2018, BBC News
Only available in English
Ministers could cut off funding for Oxfam if it cannot account for the way it handled claims of sexual misconduct by aid workers, the international development secretary has warned.

Oxfam in Haiti: ‘It was like a Caligula orgy with prostitutes in Oxfam T-shirts’

9 February 2018, The Times
Only available in English

Minister orders Oxfam to hand over files on Haiti prostitute scandal

9 février 2018, The Times
Only available in English
The government has ordered Oxfam to hand over files on charity staff who paid for sex in earthquake-torn Haiti. The demand follows an investigation by The Times that revealed Oxfam covered up the use of prostitutes by senior aid workers.

Sexual assault and harassment in the aid sector: Survivor stories

7 February 2017, Devex
Only available in English
Aid agencies and international nongovernmental organizations are slowly beginning to recognize that sexual harassment, discrimination and assault against female aid workers is a serious problem within the industry — and that perpetrators are often men holding senior positions. Two advocacy groups formed in the past 18 months by women working in the sector — the Humanitarian Women’s Network and Report the Abuse — have lifted the lid on the problem, collecting survey data from hundreds of female aid workers. The results reveal that sexual harassment, unwanted touching, sexual comments and, in some cases, rape, are a common experience for women working in remote and dangerous humanitarian settings.

Verdict today in case of UN employee accused of raping 23 African girls

11 September 2008, The Irish Times
Only available in English
A Paris court will today hand down a verdict in the case of Didier Bourguet (44), a French citizen accused of raping 23 African girls while serving as a mechanic for a United Nations peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Crimes sexuels : Comment arrêter les brebis galeuses de l’humanitaire ?

30 mai 2008, The Economist via Courrier International
Only available in French
Publié mardi 27 mai 2008, un rapport de l’ONG Save The Children accuse des travailleurs humanitaires et des soldats de la paix de commettre des abus sexuels lors de leurs missions. Malheureusement, l’ONU n’a pas toujours les moyens juridiques d’agir.

L’ONU relativise les dérives de l’humanitaire

25 octobre 2002, Libération
Only available in French
En février 2002, c’était l’électrochoc : un rapport conjoint du Haut Commissariat aux réfugiés (HCR) et de Save the children Fund (SCF) affirmait que les camps de réfugiés de Sierra Leone, du Liberia et de Guinée étaient le théâtre d’abus sexuels commis en toute impunité par des humanitaires et des Casques bleus. Le rapport, fondé sur des centaines d’entretiens, accusait plus d’une soixantaine de personnes, employées par 40 organisations internationales et non-gouvernementales, d’avoir profité de leur pouvoir pour abuser des réfugiées. Le 24 octobre, un communiqué de presse de l’ONU s’employait à relativiser l’affaire : «L’enquête menée par les inspecteurs des Nations unies n’a pas trouvé d’indices de mauvais traitements répandus des réfugiés par des humanitaires.»

L’humanitaire vire au sordide en Afrique

28 février 2002, Libération
Only available in French
Après le scandale d’un réseau criminel qui avait infiltré le bureau du Haut-Commissariat des Nations unies aux réfugiés (HCR) au Kenya, une nouvelle affaire secoue le monde humanitaire. Un grand nombre d’enfants auraient été victimes d’abus sexuels perpétrés par des humanitaires, aussi bien par le personnel local qu’international ainsi que par des Casques bleus en Sierra Leone, au Liberia et en Guinée. C’est ce que vient de révéler une mission d’évaluation, dont le premier rapport est publié conjointement par le HCR et l’organisation britannique Save the Children Fund. L’ONU vient d’envoyer une équipe d’enquêteurs pour vérifier les graves allégations basées sur les témoignages de quelque 1500 personnes, essentiellement des enfants. A ce jour, 67 personnes travaillant pour 40 organisations humanitaires sont soupçonnées d’abus sexuels sur des filles, âgées pour la plupart de 13 à 18 ans.

Études et rapports

Abus, exploitation et harcèlement sexuels, une prise de conscience collective : Humanitalents donne la parole aux travailleurs humanitaires

Juin 2019, Humanitalents
Only available in French
Humanitalents a souhaité faire une enquête auprès des humanitaires francophones pour comprendre leurs préoccupations sur les questions de harcèlement, exploitation et abus sexuels. Il s’agit d’un premier pas pour mieux cerner la situation actuelle, les perceptions des personnes travaillant dans le secteur ainsi que leurs attentes. Dans un premier temps nous observerons les profils des participant.e.s à l’enquête et leur niveau de préoccupation quant aux différentes problématiques de PSHEA. Ensuite nous regarderons de plus près la connaissance qu’iels ont des outils existants dans la structure où iels travaillent. Enfin, nous étudierons de plus près les freins à prise de parole et à la bonne gestion des cas de SHEA ainsi que leurs recommandations et attentes concernant la prévention et la prise en charge des cas.

Whole of Syria. Gender-Based Violence Area of Responsibility: Voices from Syria 2019-Assessment Findings of the Humanitarian Needs Overview

2019, United Nations Population Fund
Only available in English
With the Syria crisis approaching its ninth year, the country faces a new reality in which gender dynamics have been significantly altered. Even as parts of Syria appear to be stabilizing, the situation has long since passed a tipping point in terms of accumulated effects, with women and girls shouldering the larger portion of the consequences of the crisis. The lingering ramifications of conflict and displacement are now so fundamentally ingrained that they require long-term and strategic solutions. This report provides and in-depth look in to the lives of women and girls who are striving to find their place in the aftermath of conflict. The information, individual accounts and recommendations contained in this report serve as a valuable primer for aid agencies in delivering a comprehensive and effective response to gender-based violence, which continues to pervade the lives of women and girls throughout Syria.

Enhancing accountability SEA: Is a Sector Ombudsperson the next step?

September 2018, ICVA
Only available in English
Since the media disclosure of sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) cases by humanitarian actors in February 2018, attempts to address the issue and increase protection against SEA have multiplied. Among other efforts to improve internal practices and create effective complaint mechanisms, the idea of creating a Humanitarian Sector Ombudsperson’s office (HSO) with the power to handle SEA issues throughout the sector is also being discussed. This paper aims at feeding this reflection among ICVA members by briefly discussing some elements and practical implications in the establishment and running of an HSO.

Humanitarian Experiences with Sexual Violence: Compilation of Two Years of Report the Abuse Data Collection

August 2017, Report The Abuse
Only available in English
Report the Abuse (RTA) began operating on 19 August 2015, and one of its first acts was to open up a public, confidential, non-judgemental, and anonymous platform where humanitarian aid workers could express their experiences and knowledge about sexual violence incidents within the humanitarian community. With the closure of RTA on 20 August 2017, we wanted to ensure that information about sexual violence in the humanitarian community was available long past the end of the NGO’s operations.

Aucun Recours : La Sous-Représentation de l’Exploitation et de la Violence Sexuelles Subies par les Enfants aux Mains des Travailleurs Humanitaires et des Soldats de la Paix

1 mai 2008, Save The Children
Only available in French
Des enfants qui vivent dans des pays sous l’emprise de conflits et de désastres naturels font l’objet d’exploitation et de violences sexuelles aux mains de ceux mêmes qui ont été embauchés pour les aider : les travailleurs humanitaires et les soldats de la paix. Le silence assourdissant qui entoure ces abus est presque aussi choquant que les actes eux-mêmes. La crainte et un sentiment d’impuissance font que les enfants et leurs familles ne dénoncent pas leurs agresseurs. D’autre part, les organisations internationales ne gèrent pas suffisamment efficacement les allégations de maltraitance portées contre leur personnel. Aucun recours cherche à faire avancer le débat et à stimuler les efforts pour tenter de résoudre ce terrible problème. En se basant sur une étude menée auprès des communautés et des organisations internationales, il examine la sous-représentation chronique de la maltraitance et l’absence de mesures adéquates pour y faire face. Il fournit une nouvelle analyse sur les raisons pour lesquelles la maltraitance perdure malgré les efforts internationaux et propose de nouvelles solutions pour y faire face.

To complain or not to complain: still the question. Consultations with humanitarian aid beneficiaries on their perceptions of efforts to prevent and respond to sexual exploitation and abuse

2008, HAP
Only available in English
Between August and November in 2007, 295 humanitarian aid beneficiaries in Kenya, Namibia and Thailand participated in consultations about their perceptions of prevention and response to sexual exploitation and abuse. This report provides the background, purpose and methodology of the consultation. Then follows a detailed report for each of the three countries where consultations were held, including country-specific recommendations. The report concludes with an assessment of challenges facing humanitarian agencies in their efforts to prevent and respond to sexual exploitation and abuse, and a set of recommendations for next steps.

Preventing Corruption in Humanitarian Assistance

2008, Transparency International
Only available in English
This report is the first product of the second phase of Transparency International’s (TI) program aimed at preventing corruption in humanitarian operations, focusing on the aftermath of both natural disasters and civil conflicts. It is hoped that this TI program will enable the documentation sharing and implementation of good practice and tools for minimising the risks of corruption in humanitarian assistance. The first phase of the TI program concentrated on improving the diagnosis of corruption risks in humanitarian assistance programmes.

Investigation into sexual exploitation of refugees by aid workers in West Africa: Note by the Secretary-General A/57/465

11 novembre 2002, ONU
Also available in French
This report contains observations as to the factors which contribute to sexual exploitation in refugee communities, including aspects of refugee camp life, camp structure, camp security, food and services distribution, employment opportunities, profiles of camp workers and quality and quantities of food and other relief items distributed.

Note for Implementing and Operational Partners on Sexual Violence and Exploitation by UNHCR and the Save the Children-UK: The Experience of Refugees Children in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone

February 2002, UNHCR and Save The Children UK
Only available in English
This assessment was initiated by UNHCR and Save the Children-UK (SC-UK) due to growing concerns, based on their field experience, about the nature and extent of sexual violence and exploitation of refugee children and other children of concern to UNHCR1 in the countries of the Mano River Sub Region2 in West Africa. The purpose of the assessment was primarily to gather further information, primarily through consultations with children, about the scope of the problem in the countries concerned and the responses of the different actors: UN agencies, governments, NGOs, refugee and internally displaced person (IDP) communities and the children themselves. This would inform the development of an action plan for UNHCR and the child protection agencies to better address the problem.

Circulars and official texts

Secretary-General’s Bulletin ST/SGB/2003/13: “Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse”

9 octobre 2003, ONU
Also available in French
The Secretary-General, for the purpose of preventing and addressing cases of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse, and taking into consideration General Assembly resolution 57/306 of 15 April 2003, “Investigation into sexual exploitation of refugees by aid workers in West Africa”, promulgates dispositions in consultation with Executive Heads of separately administered organs and programmes of the United Nations.

Academic reviews and journals

Sexual exploitation and abuse in peace operations: trends, policy responses and future directions

1 March 2017, Jasmine-Kim Westendorf and Louise Searle, International Affairs
Only available in English
In 2013, a UN investigation declared sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) ‘the most significant risk to UN peacekeeping missions’. The exploitation and abuse of women and children by peacekeepers, aid workers, private contractors and other interveners has become ubiquitous to peace operations, ranging from rape to transactional sex, sex trafficking, prostitution and pornography. This article investigates the causes of SEA by interveners, and the development of policy responses undertaken by the UN and the international humanitarian community to prevent and ensure accountability for SEA. We argue that use of the umbrella term ‘SEA’, while helpful in distinguishing such behaviour from other forms of abuse, obscures the significant differences in the form, function and causes of the behaviours that fall under it, and we develop an account of the dominant forms SEA takes, based on survivor testimony, in order to better understand why policy responses have been ineffective. Our analysis of global policies around SEA demonstrates that it is dealt with as a discrete form of misbehaviour that occurs on an individual level and can be addressed through largely information-based training processes that inform personnel of its prohibition but fail to engage them in discussions of the local, international, normative, systemic and structural factors that give rise to it. We identify the structural and bureaucratic pressures that have contributed to the narrowing of approach regarding SEA to focus on individual compliance rather than the more complex set of factors at play, and which have undermined the effectiveness of policies globally.

Les opérations de maintien de la paix des Nations unies : le problème des violences sexuelles

2017, Nathalie Durhin, Revue Défense Nationale
Only available in French
La question des violences sexuelles attribuées aux casques bleus lors d’opérations de maintien de la paix (OMP) est ancienne mais toujours d’actualité. Les Nations unies (NU) sont revenues sous le feu des projecteurs depuis quelques années, pour des allégations concernant la République centrafricaine (RCA) et des militaires français, qui n’étaient pourtant pas sous le commandement onusien. La persistance de ces accusations pose question : quelles sont les causes et les conséquences de ce fléau, et pourquoi est-il si difficile d’y mettre un terme ? Existe-t-il un risque de manipulation à des fins politiques, comme cela a été parfois mentionné ? La nouvelle approche retenue par les NU pourra-t-elle permettre d’inverser la tendance ?

Interviews

De la domination sexuelle dans les empires coloniaux

3 décembre 2019, Philippe Testard-Vaillant/CNRS
Only available in French
Un an après la polémique sur leur livre « Sexe, race & colonies », des chercheurs publient un nouvel ouvrage sur la domination sexuelle dans les empires coloniaux. Explications avec deux de ses codirecteurs, l’historienne Christelle Taraud et l’anthropologue Gilles Boëtsc.

Tools

Sexual Violence and Abuse in the Aid Workplace (dataset)

2018, Centre for Humanitarian Data, OCHA
Only available in English
This dataset contains agency- and publicly-reported data on sexual violence and abuse against aid workers between January 2015 and December 2017.

Violences sexuelles dans le secteur de la coopération internationale

2018-présent, AQOCI
Only available in French
En 2018, le CQFD de l’AQOCI a entamé un vaste chantier de travail à propos des violences sexuelles. Cette démarche témoigne de la ferme volonté politique des membres de l’AQOCI d’accroître leurs capacités relativement à la prévention et à l’accompagnement des personnes ayant subi une forme de violence sexuelle, quelle que soit cette dernière. Le CQFD a développé approche féministe et centrée sur la survivante, avec l’appui des Centres d’aide et de lutte contre les agressions à caractère sexuel et la violence faite aux femmes (CALAQS). Une série de fiches est disponible, destinée à renforcer les capacités de ses membres et soutenir le travail relatif aux politiques, procédures et culture organisationnelle.

Conduct in UN field missions

2016-present, UN
Only available in English
Record keeping and data tracking of allegations of misconduct started in 2006. In July 2008, the Department of Field Support (DFS) launched the Misconduct Tracking System (MTS), a global, restricted-access database and confidential tracking system for all allegations of misconduct. MTS is now managed by the Conduct and Discipline Service in the Department for Management Strategy, Policy and Compliance, and it facilitates case management and information sharing between field missions and CDS. When information about possible allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse is received, the information is assessed by the Heads of Missions, by DMSPC and/or by the Office of Internal Oversight Services. Reconciliation of information received by the various entities takes place. This is a continuous process that aims to confirm whether information received refers to new allegations. Updates to the data on allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse are made once reconciliation and assessment of information have been completed, or when information has been received on the outcome of investigations or actions taken in response to substantiated allegations.

Survey on Sexual Aggression and Assault, Full survey results

2016, Humanitarian Women’s Network
Only available in English

Building Safer Organisations (BSO) Handbook

2007, International Council of Voluntary Agencies
Only available in English
This 2007 Handbook was the first of Building Safer Organisations’ (BSO) publications and contains training materials on receiving and investigating allegations of abuse and exploitation by humanitarian workers. A compilation of materials from the BSO Learning Programmes, it is an informal syllabus for workshop facilitators and a general reference on good practice for participants.

Press releases

Sexual exploitation and abuse in the aid sector: next steps

8 July 2020, UK Parliament
Only available in English
This Committee agreed early in this Parliament to draw up a comprehensive re-examination of progress taken to tackle sexual exploitation and abuse in the aid sector. Our focus is the aid recipients who become victims and survivors of abuse at the hands of individuals working in the sector. This inquiry will consider the support needed by victims and survivors to secure justice and rebuild their lives when they have experienced abuse, what can be done to change the culture in the aid sector to prevent it from occurring in the first place, and how the new Foreign Affairs and Development Office (FCDO) should take this work forward.

Prévention du harcèlement, de l’exploitation et des abus sexuels : Oxfam déploie des systèmes de prévention plus solides dans le monde entier

23 octobre 2018, Oxfam
Only available in French
Oxfam rend public le deuxième rapport d’avancement de son « Plan d’actions en dix points » visant la prévention du harcèlement, de l’exploitation et des abus sexuels ainsi que le soutien aux victimes.

International summit to crack down on sexual predators in the aid sector

18 October 2018, UK Government
Only available in English
World’s leading aid players gather in London to make major commitments at International Safeguarding Summit on the prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse.

Videos

Webinaires sur les codes de conduite pour prévenir et répondre aux violences sexuelles : Partie 1 et Partie 2

20 juin 2019 et 28 aout 2019, AQOCI
Only available in French

Webinaire : Mettre fin aux abus sexuels par les humanitaires et les Casques bleus : Actions concrètes du terrain

27 Septembre 2016, Peer to Peer Support
Only available in French
L’exploitation et les abus sexuels commis sur les populations affectées par le personnel humanitaire et des missions de maintien de la paix constituent l’un des pires échecs de redevabilité envers ceux avec qui et pour qui nous travaillons. Comme le Secrétaire général des Nations Unies l’a clairement stipulé, la confiance que les populations nous accordent ne devrait jamais être brisée par d’abjects actes d’exploitation et d’abus sexuels. Il est de notre responsabilité de protéger ceux que nous servons. Ce webinaire se focalise sur les actions que tous les acteurs humanitaires et personnel des missions de maintien de la paix peuvent et doivent mettre en place concrètement dans leur pratique humanitaire pour, premièrement, s’assurer que la Protection contre l’exploitation et les abus sexuels (PSEA) est correctement mise en œuvre, et deuxièmement, qu’une protection et un soutien satisfaisants sont apportés aux survivants d’exploitation et d’abus sexuels. Nous prenons exemple sur les actions mises en œuvre en République centrafricaine, qui a été le théâtre de graves cas d’exploitation et d’abus sexuels.

Covid-19: bibliographical resources

In addition to the July and November 2020 issues of Humanitarian Alternatives, both dedicated to the impacts of Covid-19 in the humanitarian field, we have drawn up and regularly update a reading list of contributions from the social and political sciences, articles from the general press and specialised journals, activity reports, tribunes and reportages related to the Covid-19 pandemic and its effects on international aid. This non-exhaustive selection of articles and resources in French and English will be enriched as knowledge about the virus, the social and geopolitical consequences of the pandemic, the response strategies developed to deal with it, and the debates that these generate, evolves. Please do not hesitate to let us know about articles that you think are relevant.

Happy reading!

Last updated: 20/01/2021

Disclaimer: Humanitarian Alternatives cannot be held responsible for the arguments developed in the articles listed below, nor for the non-maintenance of internet links to access their content.

[Digest] Weekly selection from the International Humanitarian Studies Association

Weekly updates, International Humanitarian Studies Associations (IHSA)
Only available in English

Since March 2020, IHSA prepares a weekly collection of blog posts that relate to humanitarian crises, and the responses to crisis from people, communities, politicians, and humanitarians. This selection is chosen to reflect the latest thinking on humanitarian crisis, highlighting key issues in migration and displacement, famine and food crisis, politics, human rights, disaster preparedness and response, aid policy and practice, as well as posts and op-eds on the impact of COVID19 on crisis-affected communities and response capacities.

[Digest] Coronavirus / The New Humanitarian

Regular updates, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

Read all of the coverage of the pandemic by The New Humanitarian here.

[Selection] COVID-19 / IRIS

Mises à jour régulières, IRIS
Disponible uniquement en français

Suivez les articles publiés par l’IRIS sur l’épidémie de COVID-19, ainsi que ceux de l’Observatoire (Dés)information & Géopolitique au temps du Covid-19.

[Digest] Conseils de lecture sur le Covid-19 – partie 4

MSF-CRASH
Disponible uniquement en français

L’équipe du Crash a sélectionné des reportages, des articles de vulgarisations scientifiques, des articles de journaux scientifiques, des tribunes ainsi que des contributions issues des sciences sociales sur la crise de la Covid-19. Retrouvez ici la première liste de lecture parue au mois d’avril, la seconde, publiée début mai, puis la troisième, parue en début juillet.


[Report] A few learnings from the COVID-19 crisis and its impacts on Information Management practices in the aid sector

20 January 2021, CartONG
Disponible également en français

Since April 2020, CartONG has been implementing a project to support the humanitarian sector in adapting its Information Management and Monitoring & Evaluation response to the COVID-19 crisis. Building on this enriching experience, this learning paper aims at providing an analysis of such evolutions, in particular looking at the impact of the crisis on internal information flows and responsibilities within aid NGOs and what the use of new IM tools meant in terms of IM practices. It also reflects on how these evolutions can help improve the quality of information produced by NGOs. CartONG’s perspective was complemented by the perspective of other H2H organizations and operational actors who have agreed to share their experience with us.

[Migration] The virus that shut down the world: The plight of refugees and migrants

29 December 2020, UN News
Only available in English

UN News considers the new challenges faced by refugees and migrants during 2020; from a heightened risk of catching the COVID-19 virus in crowded camps, to being stranded due to travel restrictions, and becoming the targets of criminal gangs.

[Moyen-Orient] Sous perfusion humanitaire, Gaza s’alarme d’une flambée du Covid-19

28 décembre 2020, Le Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

Alors qu’en Israël la campagne de vaccination a commencé, l’enclave palestinienne a peu d’espoir d’obtenir rapidement des vaccins anti-Covid.

[Aid] COVID-19 outbreak 9-month update (Reporting timeframe: 31 January – 31 October 2020)

16 December 2020, IFRC
Only available in English

This 9-month report on the Federation-wide response to COVID-19 continues the harmonized and transparent approach to accountability across the global Red Cross Red Crescent network of National Societies together with the IFRC.

[Gender] How to confront COVID-19’s cost to girls

14 December 2020, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

No one comes out of a crisis without being changed in some way, and this pandemic is a crisis on a scale we have rarely seen: It has put years of progress in human development at stake; inequity is at its worst. If we have to prioritise one thing, it should be ensuring that girls don’t go back to despair, teenage motherhood, and premature death. Girls must have the chance to flourish and pursue a bright future in spite of COVID-19.

[France] Avec le Covid-19, Marseille au bord de la crise humanitaire

11 décembre 2020, AFP – Vidéos France
Disponible uniquement en français

[France] Covid-19 : une clinique mobile pour prendre soin des « inconfinables » à Paris

11 décembre 2020, Médecins Sans Frontières
Disponible uniquement en français

La pandémie de Covid-19 a compliqué l’accès aux soins et aux services de base pour les personnes qui étaient déjà dans une situation très précaire en France. Une clinique mobile MSF parcourt les rues de Paris afin de permettre l’accès aux soins de santé primaires à toutes les personnes à la rue : migrants, sans domicile fixe, mineurs non accompagnés en recours, habitants des quartiers modestes. Reportage.

[Vulnerability] COVID-19 and the Rights of Older People in Developing Countries

10 December 2020, Dorcas
Only available in English

The COVID-19 pandemic and in fact all crises – acute or prolonged – remind us that human rights need to be central in all recovery and development efforts. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will only be achieved if we are able to create equal opportunities for all, address failures exposed and exploited by COVID-19, and apply human rights standards to tackle entrenched, systematic, and intergenerational inequalities, exclusion and discrimination. In this document, Dorcas summarizes data and evidence from recent studies and reports on the rights of older people in times of COVID-19 in low- and middle-income countries. We also share examples from Dorcas’ practice and formulate recommendations based on good practices of other organisations as well as our own.

[Latin America] COVID-19 fuels growing conflict and displacement in Colombia

10 December 2020, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

According to an August congressional report on the implementation of the 2016 peace accord, 16,190 people were displaced by violence in Colombia in the first six months of 2020 – almost double the number in the same period in 2019. The country holds the dubious distinction of having the second largest population of internally displaced people in the world, behind only Syria.

[Gender] COVID-19 is stifling NGO efforts to promote gender equality when it’s most needed

9 December 2020, The Conversation
Only available in English

It’s no secret that the COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted women around the world. The negative impacts of the pandemic on women are well-documented. Women have experienced increased rates of unemployment, heightened burdens of care, decreased access to health services and higher rates of domestic violence. But what’s also alarming is new evidence that the pandemic has harmed the ability of Canada’s international humanitarian and development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to help address these inequalities.

[Migration] Addressing the needs of forcibly displaced populations during a pandemic: early learnings

9 December 2020, Elrha
Only available in English

R2HC-funded researchers share preliminary findings on health systems’ responses to COVID-19 in Colombia, Gaza and Lebanon.

[Vaccin] Vaccins contre le Covid-19 : les victimes des conflits armés ne doivent pas être oubliées

2 décembre 2020, L’Humanitaire dans tous ses états
Disponible uniquement en français

Si un ou des vaccins efficaces contre le Covid-19 seraient disponibles dans les prochains mois, le CICR tient à rappeler la nécessité de sa mise à disposition partout y compris dans les situations de conflits armés. Il conviendra également de s’interroger sur le défi logistique que représente une vaccination à l’échelle de la planète. Pour l’heure, l’institution publie ce communiqué de presse.

[Report] Responding to COVID-19: Global Accountability Report 2 – June to August 2020

2 December 2020, Médecins Sans Frontières
O
nly available in English

The COVID-19 global health crisis continues to hold the world firmly in its grip. In many countries around the world, the initial emergency response has turned into a sustained effort to contain recurring waves of infections, putting a relentless strain on healthcare systems, economies, and social life. From June to August, Médecins Sans Frontières continued to respond to the pandemic through its existing programmes, as well as dedicated COVID-19 interventions in more than 250 projects in 63 countries.

[Africa] East African Climate Groups Help Fight the COVID-19 Crisis

2 December 2020, World Resources Institute
Only available in English

The prevailing lockdowns and travel bans of the COVID-19 pandemic offer a critical lesson in international development: investing in local institutions is crucial to building resilience to crises. When international aid organizations evacuated their staff at the beginning of the pandemic, local organizations were left to fill in the gaps. In fact, a survey of nearly 600 development professionals found that 51% of aid workers cited increased reliance on local actors to carry out their projects, a dependence that grew over the course of March, April and May.

[Vulnérabilité] La pandémie de Covid-19 a précipité des millions de personnes dans l’extrême pauvreté

1er décembre 2020, Le Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

Près de 235 millions de personnes ont besoin d’une aide humanitaire dans le monde, un nouveau record selon l’ONU, qui lance un appel humanitaire de 35 milliards de dollars pour 2021.

[Report] Essential Health Services: A guidance note – How to prioritize and plan essential health services during COVID-19 response in humanitarian settings

December 2020, USAID
Only available in English

Health clusters and partners are facing considerable technical and operational challenges in humanitarian settings to safely deliver COVID-19 response and maintain essential health services. Increased operational challenges such as movement restrictions, diversion of human resources, supplies and funding as well as increased operational costs contribute to the disruption in availability and utilization of essential health services. Furthermore, fear and mistrust of health care being provided as well as stigma related to COVID-19 has, in many settings, resulted in the decreased utilization of services as affected populations are unwilling to seek care. These disruptions to health services raise concern of the resultant impact COVID-19 may have on excess mortality and morbidity. Lessons learned from the 2014–2016 West Africa Ebola Outbreak note that disruptions to the provision and utilisation of essential health services resulted in substantial increases in mortality from malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. As such the Global Health Cluster and partners have developed this tool to help health clusters and partners utilize a systematic approach to prioritizing, maintaining and adapting essential health services during COVID-19 response should they be unable to continue providing the usual package of services safely.

[Vulnerability] Children with Disabilities – Ensuring their Inclusion in COVID-19 Response Strategies and Evidence Generation

December 2020, UNICEF
Only available in English

Even before the COVID-19 pandemic struck, children with disabilities were among the most disadvantaged, facing increased exposure to abuse and discrimination and reduced access to services in many parts of the world. Understanding these pre-existing vulnerabilities can help anticipate how the COVID-19 pandemic could sharpen existing inequities and can shed light on where targeted efforts may be required. The publication draws on pre-COVID data to highlight how children with disabilities face greater risks in the midst of this pandemic. It documents what has happened to services for children and adults with disabilities across the world and includes examples of what has been done to address disruptions in services. It also discusses the challenges in generating disability-inclusive data during the pandemic.

[Report] The COVID-19 Catalyst: Implications for Disaster Governance in ASEAN

December 2020, Lina Gong and S. Nanthini
Only available in English

Disaster governance is a key element to building a resilient ASEAN community. Vulnerability to natural hazards has led to their prioritisation in disaster governance in the regional bloc. With the set of regional frameworks, bodies and facilities established over the past two decades, ASEAN has become a leading regional actor for dealing with natural hazards. In comparison, during the COVID-19 outbreak, ASEAN’s role has largely been limited to facilitating information-sharing and coordination. The challenges in national COVID-19 responses and the humanitarian needs induced by the pandemic remind us that public health emergencies deserve equal attention as natural hazards in regional disaster governance. Moreover, the risk of concurrent pandemics and natural hazards points to the need for an integrated approach. This NTS Insight argues that a holistic approach to disaster governance is necessary for ASEAN’s community building, which appreciates the linkages between different disasters and integrates regional mechanisms. As the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami accelerated improvement in ASEAN’s management of natural hazards, COVID-19 should be the catalyst for integrated disaster governance in the region.

[Report] Prevailing against pandemics by putting people at the centre — World AIDS Day Report 2020

26 November 2020, UNAIDS
Only available in English

Insufficient investment and action on HIV and other long-running pandemics have also left the world exposed to a new global health threat: COVID-19. Had health systems and social safety nets been even stronger, the world would have been better positioned to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus and withstand its impact. In this report, UNAIDS is calling on countries to make far greater investments in global pandemic responses and adopt a new set of bold, ambitious but achievable HIV targets. If those targets are met, the world will be back on track to ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030.

[Africa] COVID-19: A Catastrophe for Children in Sub-Saharan Africa – Cash Transfers and a Marshall Plan Can Help

26 November 2020, UNICEF
Only available in English

This report investigates how COVID-19 and other shocks have impacted child well-being in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 2020 and the potential role of cash transfers and external resources to help children and economies. It reviews the latest social, economic and financial information from a range of global databases and modelling exercises, draws on emerging country-level reporting and carries out projections where recent data are unavailable. Although information remains incomplete and things are quickly evolving, the outlook is alarming.

[Latin America] Grassroots aid grows in middle-income Chile, as COVID-19 drives new needs

24 November 2020, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

Up and down the length of Chile, people are turning to soup kitchens for their hunger needs as the coronavirus pandemic broadens inequality after lockdown measures shuttered the informal economy for months. Food insecurity in Chile has risen dramatically over the course of the pandemic, and its impacts have been particularly acute among already marginalised urban populations.

[Vaccine] Poorer countries can’t wait until 2022. The WTO should suspend COVID vaccine patents now

23 November 2020, Shaz Memon & Dr Akber Ali
Only available in English

Wealthy countries are first in line in the queue for vaccines, and the WTO is refusing to suspend patent enforcement so that poorer countries can manufacture generic versions. Most people will have to wait until 2022. This is unconscionable, say Shaz Memon and Akber Ali. India in particular is in an excellent position to roll out its own versions.

[Perspective historique] Le vaccin est une chose, la vaccination de masse en est une autre

23 novembre 2020, L’Humanitaire dans tous ses états
Disponible uniquement en français

Alors que l’on ne parle plus que de vaccin contre le Covid-19, la guerre entre laboratoires bat son plein, prenons le temps d’effectuer un retour sur l’épidémie foudroyante de méningite cérébro-spinale qui, en 1974, flambe au Brésil. Cette histoire va révéler que le principal défi en terme de vaccination de masse est la coordination et la logistique.

[Report] Global Humanitarian Response Plan COVID-19 Progress Report: Fourth Edition

17 November 2020, OCHA
Only available in English

In the eight months since the humanitarian community came together in the COVID-19 Global Humanitarian Response Plan (GHRP), the virus has swept across the globe and impacted entire economies and societies. Millions of people have been pushed to the brink of survival. The extent of the effects is still unfolding. As of 16 November, there were more than 15.7 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 in GHRP countries and 518,000 deaths. This represents more than 31 per cent of global cases and more than 41 per cent of global deaths. The number of reported cases and deaths have thankfully been lower than originally feared in many of the countries with humanitarian needs, but it is the secondary impacts that have been – and will continue to be – devastating for many of the people living in these countries.

[Localisation] La Covid-19 force à décentraliser l’action humanitaire

12 novembre 2020, The Conversation
Disponible uniquement en français

Seconde Guerre mondiale, génocide rwandais, séisme en Haïti… chacune de ses tragédies a forcé plusieurs grands organismes d’action humanitaire à revoir la manière dont ils interviennent sur le terrain. La professionnalisation humanitaire a ainsi évolué d’une crise à l’autre. En donnant une plus grande place aux acteurs locaux, la pandémie de Covid-19 aura aussi un impact important.

[Africa] How can countries continue to combat malaria during a pandemic?

11 November 2020, African Arguments
Only available in English

With medical disruptions due to COVID-19 likely to kill more people in Africa than the disease itself, two countries provide interesting lessons.

[Middle East] Syria: Lack of adequate COVID-19 response puts thousands of lives at risk

12 November 2020, Amnesty International

Disponible aussi en français

Nearly eight months into the COVID-19 pandemic, the Syrian government is failing to adequately protect its health workers, still lacks a robust response to the spread of the disease, and is refusing to provide transparent and consistent information about the country’s COVID-19 outbreak, Amnesty International said today.

[Africa] COVID-19 and Conflict | How pandemic regulations are being used to target the political opposition in Zimbabwe

5 November 2020, ISS blog on Global Development and Social Justice
Only available in English

Relatively few Covid-19 infections and deaths have been registered in Zimbabwe, yet the Southern African country has been hit hard by the pandemic. Our recent research on Covid-19 responses in Zimbabwe shows that in the face of a strict lockdown and ongoing economic repercussions, one of the biggest worries for Zimbabwean citizens ironically is falling prey to the instrumental and strategic use of laws meant to protect them from the virus, which are apparently being used to continue decades-long political repression.

[Migration] Refugee Situation Worsens with the pandemic: Are we doing enough?

5 November 2020, Refugee Law Initiative
Only available in English

The world in 2020 is facing the worst public health crisis of its time, almost a hundred years after the Spanish flu. Covid-19 has crippled the 21st Century world and has brought governments and corporations to their knees. In mid-March, for the lack of any better measures, the pandemic forced many national governments to enter into partial or complete nationwide lockdowns, to prevent community outbreak. In the words of, IMF Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva, there is a situation of ‘global recession as bad as the global financial crisis or worse’.

Such formidable circumstances have directly impacted millions. There has been a collective realization of the importance of food on the table, a shelter overhead and the ability to have necessary healthcare. The pandemic has further aggravated the global refugee situation. The WHO, OHCHR, IOM and the UNHCR jointly issued a statement expressing concerns regarding the urgent protection for the rights and health of migrants, refugees and stateless persons. While some countries have closed their borders, which denies people the opportunity to seek/claim asylum, many are struggling to ensure healthy living circumstances and availability of essential goods.

While several works have shed light on the difficulties faced by refugees and the law on state responsibility, this blog post will highlight the specific obligations of states in the special circumstances caused by Covid-19 and discuss how both states and UN agencies have dealt with the situation over the past few months.

[Entretien] Covid-19: l’enjeu de la coopération internationale. Entretien avec Xavier Michelin

Novembre 2020, Observatoire de la Santé Mondiale
Disponible uniquement en français

[Localisation] A window of opportunity for localizing aid? Learning from Covid-19 to progress locally led response and development

November 2020, Australian Red Cross, Humanitarian Advisory Group and the Institute for Human Security and Social Change, La Trobe University
Only available in English

As COVID-19 was declared a pandemic and international travel restrictions, border closures and lockdowns ensued, large numbers of expatriate aid workers returned to their home countries. This significant change in the demography of the aid industry in many countries has led to a shift in roles for international, and national and local actors in humanitarian and development work. Some claimed that in the Pacific region, COVID-19, and responses to it, would elevate local actors and give them more opportunity to take on leadership and decision-making roles. It was suggested that this could establish new forms of locally led social and collective action and challenge the traditional narratives of aid. Others argued that the humanitarian system more broadly had retreated to known territory, working almost entirely through large multilaterals and minimising the risk associated with new partnerships with national and local actors.

[Genre] Genre et organisation du travail pendant la crise covid-19 : Étude dans le milieu de la solidarité internationale en France

Novembre 2020, Adéquations, Coordination sud, F3E, Genre en Action & Médecins du Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

Cette étude présente les résultats d’une enquête menée entre mai et juin 2020 auprès de salarié·e·s d’organisations françaises de solidarité internationale (OSI) sur les répercussions de la crise sanitaire en termes de genre dans l’organisation du travail et les ressources humaines de ces structures, ainsi que d’un webinaire de mise en discussion des premiers résultats et de recueil de recommandations qui s’est tenu le 6 juillet. Les 253 réponses à un questionnaire en ligne, émanant en majorité de femmes, mettent en exergue l’impact différencié sur les femmes et les hommes des mesures mises en place par les OSI pendant la période de confinement, notamment en termes d’articulation entre la vie professionnelle et la vie familiale, de baisse du pouvoir économique et d’augmentation des risques psycho-sociaux.

[Moyen-Orient] La guerre au Yémen : un désastre humanitaire aggravé par la Covid-19

27 octobre 2020, Les Yeux du Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

En 2016, l’ONU déclarait que la guerre au Yémen avait engendré la pire crise humanitaire mondiale. La situation reste aujourd’hui des plus inquiétantes, en raison d’un conflit violent, de la propagation des maladies (choléra et Covid-19), d’une insécurité alimentaire et d’une pauvreté généralisée. Plus de 80% de la population, soit 24 millions de personnes, se retrouvent dépendantes des aides envoyées par les agences de l’ONU et les ONG.

[Podcast/Race] COVID-19 and BLM: A new era for aid?

21 October 2020, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

In recent months, COVID-19 and Black Lives Matter have re-energised some of the long-standing critiques about how the sector operates. If there were ever a time to take that talk seriously, it’s now. This moment has the potential to be a critical turning point. Come along, as Heba, Jeremy, and Danny look at the future of crisis response at this time of potential – but still unrealised – transformation. Will the current model survive? Can it even change? And if not, what will take its place?

[Sécurité alimentaire] Quand le Covid-19 devient vecteur de famine

20 octobre, L’Humanitaire dans tous ses états
Disponible uniquement en français

Les plus impactés par les conséquences du Covid-19 seront toujours les plus faibles, les plus pauvres. C’est ce qui vient à l’esprit quand on découvre une étude conduite cet été par le CICR auprès de 2 400 personnes dans dix pays africains dont la plupart minés par un conflit armé : Mauritanie, Niger, Nigéria, Cameroun, Libye, Soudan, Éthiopie, au Kenya, Somalie, République démocratique du Congo.

[Latin America] Venezuelan migrants left in the lurch as COVID-19 stalls regional reforms

15 October 2020, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

Two years ago, 11 Latin American countries gathered in solidarity to coordinate a progressive response to an unprecedented regional exodus. But COVID-19 has since crippled their economies and far-reaching migration reforms have stalled, leaving the lives and livelihoods of millions of Venezuelan migrants in the balance.

[Africa] How to Talk about COVID-19 in Africa

15 October 2020, Boston Review
Only available in English

To ask why COVID-19 hasn’t been deadlier in Africa is to suggest that more Africans should be dying. We need better questions.

[Africa] Are warnings of a COVID-19 famine in Africa overblown?

14 October 2020, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

Alarm bells have been ringing for months that COVID-19 could push fragile African countries “closer to the abyss” of famine as jobs are lost, local markets close, and poverty deepens. Aid agencies routinely list the coronavirus as a major factor in driving humanitarian needs, from the Sahel to Somalia, and don’t shy away from describing its impact as the “perfect storm”. A joint report in July by the World Food Programme (WFP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) calculated that COVID-19 could create an additional 121 million hungry people globally by the end of the year – mostly in 15 already crisis-affected African countries. But as an increasing number of African countries ease their punishing lockdowns, ending restrictions on internal travel, relaxing curfews, and reopening schools, do these dire warnings still hold true?

[Audio/Société] Les pays émergents se relèveront-ils après le Covid-19 ?

13 octobre 2020, France culture
Disponible uniquement en français

“La crise du Covid-19 n’a pas (pour l’instant) submergé le monde émergent mais accéléré sa transition.” C’est la première conclusion d’une étude en cours menée par l’économiste Jean-Joseph Boillot. Entretien.

[Africa] Power and the Pandemic: Observing COVID-19 in Africa through a Public Authorities Lens

8 October 2020, CPAID
Only available in English

Most discussion of Africa’s response to COVID-19 takes place at the national level, focussing on the role of formal state authorities. However, less is known about the role of ‘public authorities’: traditional chiefs, self-help groups, kinship networks, professional associations, faith-based groups, civil society organisations, multinational companies, humanitarian agencies, organized criminal gangs, militias and rebels. These often operate below the national level and are particularly important in areas where the state is weak or absent. To explore this gap, researchers at the Centre for Public Authority and International Development were asked to provide vignettes of life under, and public authorities’ responses to, the pandemic in the places they intimately know: northern Uganda, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sierra Leone.

[Vulnérabilité] Les inégalités sociales au temps du COVID-19

Octobre 2020, IReSP
Disponible uniquement en français

Notre pays — et la planète — traverse une crise épidémique majeure. Comme toute crise, elle peut être révélatrice des forces et faiblesses de la société, et de ses composantes : celles de son système de santé, de son système de recherche, du fonctionnement de la démocratie sanitaire… Cet article aborde la question des inégalités sociales au temps du COVID-19 : la crise sanitaire, la réaction politique et celle du système de santé les ont-elles amplifiées, atténuées ou les ont-elles laissées telles qu’elles étaient auparavant ? Ce numéro spécial de la revue Questions de Santé Publique apporte un éclairage sur cette question à partir de résultats originaux provenant de l’enquête « Épidémiologie et conditions de vie » (EpiCoV), permettant de documenter dans les meilleurs délais la situation exceptionnelle que nous traversons.

[Latin America] How COVID-19 has created a crisis on the Venezuela-Colombia border

23 September 2020, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

A humanitarian crisis has been brewing for the past six months on the Venezuela-Colombia border, where COVID-19 lockdown measures have had a devastating effect on Indigenous and migrant communities strained by the influx of tens of thousands of Venezuelan returnees.

[Aid] 4 steps for surviving COVID-19 as an NGO

23 September 2020, ALNAP
Only available in English

NGOs have been drastically affected by COVID-19, and some are struggling to cover core expenses for the coming years. The problem is accentuated for local NGOs already struggling with funding, primarily due to donors prioritising projects responding to the COVID-19 pandemic as needs mount.

[Opinion] From COVID-19 to climate change: What we’re watching at the UNGA

22 September 2020, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

In contrast with a manic year in which the spread of COVID-19 has set off cascading social and economic emergencies around the world, the UN General Assembly’s main debate week opened on Tuesday in unusually calm fashion at the world body’s headquarters.

[Asia] What happened to the ‘Asian century’? COVID-19 in Australia and New Zealand

22 September 2020, COMPAS, University of Oxford
Only available in English

Australia and New Zealand are unique among ‘Western’ countries in their proximity to Asia. Both countries have strong political, economic and cultural ties to the region. In 2012, the Australian government released a white paper on ‘Australia in the Asian century’, mapping out a plan to teach Asian languages in schools, attracting international students to Australian universities, and building businesses’ cultural competency to encourage greater engagement with Asia. New Zealand, for its part, has often claimed membership of Asia. Both countries also host large Asian immigrant populations, which have been alternately met with warm acceptance, and vitriolic xenophobia. The onset of COVID-19 – which has had severe impacts for violence and discrimination against peoples of Asian descent, and international mobility – has brought the region’s relationship with Asia, and specifically, China, into sharper focus.

[Africa] Impact of COVID-19 in Africa: a scenario analysis to 2030

16 September 2020, The Broker
Only available in English

Africa is known to struggle under the weight of fragile institutions, poor leadership, conflict, corruption and myriad legacy challenges that perpetuate underdevelopment from colonial times. The coronavirus has once again brought to the fore these challenges and exposed the frailty of many of the institutions across the continent. Yet, as the virus was late in arriving to the continent, we saw governments across Africa taking decisive actions in an attempt to keep citizens safe, and implementing global best practices and policies. While there are obvious capacity and execution shortfalls, there were also a number of successful areas of practice. For example, the Africa CDC (Centre for Disease Control) developed a joint continental strategy on the coronavirus and launched a continental taskforce on COVID-19.

[Middle East] Yemen: Aid Obstruction Puts Millions at Risk

14 September 2020, Human Rights Watch
Disponible également en français

The Houthi armed group and other authorities are severely restricting the delivery of desperately needed aid in Yemen, Human Rights Watch said in a report released today. The situation is exacerbating the country’s dire humanitarian situation and weakening its response to the Covid-19 pandemic.

[Aid] COVID-19 and Humanitarian Crises

26 August 2020, HillNote
Disponible également en français

At the beginning of 2020, millions of people around the world were already in a state of significant vulnerability as a result of armed conflicts, disasters and state failure. This HillNote discusses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on humanitarian settings and humanitarian assistance.

[Latin America] How COVID-19 is tragically exposing systemic vulnerabilities in Peru

25 August 2020, ISS blog on Global Development and Social Justice
Only available in English

Despite early assessments that Peru was faring well in the COVID-19 pandemic and that its preparedness was due to its strict application of austerity and reforms over the last 30 years, these quickly turned out to be tragically premature as the country emerged over the summer as one of the worst impacted globally in terms of confirmed deaths per capita. While much of the blame has been focused on people’s behaviour, the crisis ultimately points to deep overlapping structural inequalities within the social protection, employment, and health systems, which austerity and reform have not resolved and in some cases worsened.

[Vulnerability] Rethinking vulnerability in the era of COVID-19

24 August 2020, Center for Humanitarian Leadership
Only available in English

The notion of ‘vulnerability’ is at the heart of much humanitarian discourse. For a sector that aims to save lives and alleviate suffering, understanding the potential for exposure to harm is an important part of seeking mitigation measures. And in an environment where there is inevitably more need than resources, vulnerability criteria is a tool used by humanitarian agencies to make transparent decisions about who should be prioritised to receive assistance. The aim is to ensure those with the most need or at greatest risk of harm receive assistance first, while keeping the principle of ‘do no harm’ at the centre of every action. However, the COVID-19 pandemic is forcing us to reconsider our understanding of who is vulnerable, to what, and why. COVID-19 not only reminds us of the need to recognise individual agency as well as risk but is also recalibrating notions of vulnerability at a global level.

[Opinion] Lessons from the HIV epidemic can teach us resilience in the face of COVID-19

19 August 2020, DEVEX
Only available in English

In many ways, COVID-19 is the newest iteration of a decades-long struggle for equality and justice: too often, the most vulnerable are stigmatized, denied access to care, and left out of key decisions that directly impact their health. Today, marginalized groups are disproportionately affected by both the health risks as well as the economic and social fallout of COVID-19. LGBTIQ+ populations have been subject to further blame and abuse due to the pandemic and are being left out of COVID-19 response and recovery initiatives. People who are incarcerated report being denied care as the coronavirus tears through prisons around the world. Lockdowns and social distancing requirements have left many sex workers without income, and those that continue to work face heightened health risks. The parallels to the HIV/AIDS epidemic are clear, at the height of which those most affected were many of the same marginalized groups that are most vulnerable to COVID-19 now. Widespread stigma and discrimination prevented many from seeking care, and many health workers refused to treat these communities for fear of contracting the virus. Yet, affected communities were often excluded from discussions about HIV research, funding, and policy agendas. That is, until AIDS activists took matters into their own hands.

[Report] Responding to COVID-19: Global Accountability Report – March to May 2020

10 August 2020, Médecins Sans Frontières
O
nly available in English

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented health crisis of global scale. Since early 2020, it has put tremendous strain on healthcare systems, disrupted economies, and halted large parts of social life in many countries around the world. In a race against the fast spreading virus and rapidly increasing patient numbers, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) scaled-up our global response from early January, committing substantial resources to both developing dedicated COVID-19 projects and maintaining essential healthcare in its existing programmes.

[Localisation] Covid has put Governance at the heart of debates on Development, but how has it changed the questions we ask?

5 August 2020, Oxfam Blog – From Poverty to Power
Only available in English

The aim of this blog is to suggest ways in which the ‘governance discourse’ is changing – indeed has already changed – as a result of Covid-19.

[Food security] From Covid-19 to Locusts: The Horn of Africa’s Looming Food Crisis

11 July 2020, ISPI
Only available in English

As the COVID-19 pandemic tightens its grip on the Horn of Africa, its impacts are being felt unevenly across geographies, time, and different groups of people. These impacts go beyond the immediate risk of infection, compounding existing vulnerabilities, crises and risks to create an economic crisis that will take longer to recover from than the illness itself. A snapshot of the food security situation in the Horn of Africa (HoA) underscores these dynamics: COVID-19 complicates a context characterised by chronic food insecurity, protracted conflict and displacement, and environmental factors such as flooding and desert locust swarms. The predictions are dire:  FEWSNET predicts that in the East African region (within which they include Yemen), ‘the peak number of people facing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or worse outcomes in 2020 will be 25-30 percent higher than the peak population estimate prior to the onset of COVID-19.’ This article sheds light on these dynamics, mapping the layers of the food security challenge the HoA faces as a result of COVID-19 and other factors. We also highlight key points of resilience, expertise and lessons to be learned from within the region that warrant further support and research.

[Food security] Food banks, food poverty and coping during COVID-19: a view from the Somali diaspora in Bristol

9 July 2020, Nisar Majid
Only available in English

This blog post provides an update on the economic impact of COVID-19 amongst the Somali community in the UK, drawing on insights gained in one city, Bristol. In particular, it highlights the importance of food banks and community-level support that provided a crucial buffer before government support materialised, but that also reflects underling food insecurity in the UK. The post also suggests that an important employment sector for Somalis in the city, taxi driving, which has been severely impacted has in part been replaced by a rise in the delivery sector. The post discusses the difficulty in obtaining information and drawing out wider trends in the current context but raises concerns for food insecurity in the UK and in Somalia looking forward.

[Localisation] Should low-income countries decentralize their COVID-19 responses?

8 July 2020, IFPRI
Only available in English

As countries respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, some have centralized decision-making, while others, including the United States and Germany, have left key policy choices to state governments, or even municipalities—allowing for individualized measures. These varied strategies have sparked a debate about the merits of decentralized service delivery in pandemic response. The OECD notes that this approach can work if sub-national governments receive sufficient support and there is adequate coordination across levels of government.

[Reportage] How coronavirus hit Aden: A Yemeni doctor’s diary

7 July 2020, The New Humanitarian
Only available in English

As COVID-19 courses through Yemen, taking an unknown number of victims in a country already decimated by war, Dr Ammar Derwish, 32, has been documenting the toll on his community.

[Europe] The vulnerabilities of Somali communities with COVID-19 in Europe

7 July 2020, Daily Sabah
Only available in English

[Opinion] Covid-19, ce n’est pas fini !

6 juillet 2020, Défis Humanitaires
Disponible uniquement en français

La pandémie a sérieusement perturbé l’organisation de l’aide humanitaire internationale. Elle est en train de provoquer maintenant une grave crise économique et sociale, tant ici en France et dans les pays d’Europe, que partout dans le monde, particulièrement dans les pays les plus fragiles confrontés à un conflit et aux conséquences du réchauffement climatique. Crise sanitaire, crise économique doublées pour certaines populations vulnérables d’une crise alimentaire. Dans ce contexte de crise durable à rebondissement, les conséquences directes et indirectes de la pandémie vont augmenter de manière significatives les besoins humanitaires. La crise va durer et il n’y aura pas de retour à la situation antérieure à la pandémie. L’humanitaire doit accélérer son travail d’adaptation continu au contexte pour que sa réponse colle au mieux aux besoins.

En Guyane, la crise provoquée par le Covid est désormais humanitaire et économique

2 juillet 2020, La Croix
Disponible uniquement en français

Dans l’Est guyanais, les habitants des communes frontalières avec le Brésil de Saint-Georges-de-l’Oyapock et de Camopi vivent confinés depuis plus de trois mois et le début de la crise du coronavirus. Avec des conséquences économiques directes pour une très grande partie de la population qui vit de la pêche ou de petits boulots.

[Paix] La pandémie de Covid-19 continue d’affecter profondément la paix et la sécurité du monde, prévient Guterres

2 juillet 2020, ONU Info
Disponible uniquement en français

« Les conséquences peuvent être observées même dans plusieurs pays traditionnellement considérés comme “stables”. Mais les impacts sont particulièrement apparents dans les pays qui connaissent déjà un conflit ou qui en sortent », a dit le chef de l’ONU lors d’un débat par visioconférence avec les quinze membres du Conseil, auquel participait le Ministre allemand des affaires étrangères, Heiko Josef Maas, dont le pays préside l’organe onusien au mois de juillet. Selon le chef de l’ONU, les risques qui pèsent sur la paix et à la sécurité internationales sont multiples.

[Aid] Palliative care, COVID-19 and humanitarian action: it’s time to talk.

2 July 2020, Humanitarian Law and Policy Blog
Only available in English

For countries already gripped by war or disaster, COVID-19 is magnifying existing challenges to healthcare. To date, recognition of the importance of palliative care by humanitarian agencies has been slow at best, if not entirely overlooked. Given the inevitability of death for many in the coming months, the pandemic should be the impetus to put palliative care firmly on the agenda of humanitarian agencies. In this post, Rachel Coghlan, researcher at the Centre for Humanitarian Leadership, Deakin University, and palliative care physiotherapist, outlines the key challenges of integrating palliative care into humanitarian action, explains why the COVID-19 pandemic should be a catalyst for change, and shares three big ideas on how to move forward.

[Paix] Lutte contre la Covid-19 : le Conseil de sécurité exige une cessation immédiate et mondiale des hostilités

1er juillet 2020, ONU Info
Disponible uniquement en français

112 jours après que l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) a qualifié la Covid-19 de pandémie, le Conseil de sécurité a finalement adopté une résolution sur cette question de santé mondiale qui affecte la paix et la sécurité internationales. Dans cette résolution, les quinze membres du Conseil demandent également à toutes les parties aux conflits armés à travers le monde de s’engager immédiatement dans « une pause humanitaire durable » pendant au moins 90 jours consécutifs.

[Aide internationale] La pandémie de Covid-19 “s’accélère” avertit l’OMS alors qu’en Guyane, certains parlent de “crise humanitaire”

30 juin 2020, France Culture
Disponible uniquement en français

L’Organisation mondiale de la santé, inquiète notamment de la situation aux Etats-Unis, envoie des experts en Chine pour tenter d’en savoir plus sur l’origine du virus, sa transmission et enrayer une nouvelle vague. En Guyane, le virus se propager rapidement, certains évoquent une crise humanitaire.

[Aid] Establishing humanitarian lanes during COVID-19

30 June 2020, East Asia Forum
Only available in English

COVID-19 is severely impacting the humanitarian system. It has forced countries to focus on containing the pandemic with national lockdown measures — hindering humanitarian action and denying aid to many affected communities in the Asia Pacific. But countries in the region have begun negotiations to normalise international travel, with Australia and New Zealand being the first to initiate bilateral discussions over the establishment of a ‘Trans-Tasman bubble’ and a ‘humanitarian corridor’ to the Pacific during the pandemic.

[Vulnerability] Inclusion of persons with disabilities in Covid-19 response and recovery: seven steps to implementing the IASC Guidelines

29 June 2020, ODI – Humanitarian Practices Network
Only available in English

The Covid-19 global crisis has thrown into stark relief the harmful inequalities existing in societies everywhere. No more harshly is this felt than by persons with disabilities, who face elevated risks of infection, serious illness and mortality as well worsening levels of poverty, abuse and exploitation (as detailed in a recent policy brief from the UN Secretary-General).

[Moyen-Orient] Coronavirus en Syrie : « le système de santé n’est pas préparé à une épidémie de grande ampleur »

29 juin 2020, ONU Info
Disponible uniquement en français

L’ONU continue d’appuyer les mesures de préparation et de réponse à la Covid-19 dans toute la Syrie, y compris l’expansion des capacités de test. « Mais d’importantes lacunes subsistent, notamment en ce qui concerne les équipements de protection individuelle, les fournitures de gestion des cas médicaux et la capacité d’isolement et de quarantaine », a alerté M. Lowcock qui est également Coordinateur des secours d’urgence de l’ONU.

[Middle East] COVID-19 may not have reached Syrian communities in the Middle East, but its domino effects have

26 June 2020, COMPAS (University of Oxford)
Only available in English

[Climate] A ‘natural disaster’ on top of a pandemic – preparedness in the face of cascading uncertainties

25 June 2020, Institute of Development Studies
Only available in English

A cyclone is the last thing you need during the coronavirus pandemic! In May 2020, supercyclone Amphan – one of the severest cyclones originating in the Bay of Bengal for over a century – ripped through coastal Bangladesh and the eastern coast of India causing widespread damage and disruption. The Chief Minister of West Bengal announced that the catastrophe was “worse than coronavirus”.

[Mobilisation] How civil society is fighting back against coronavirus crackdowns

24 June 2020, Open Democracy
Only available in English

For some activist groups, the crisis has provided an opportunity to build their movements.

[Gender] Gender and ICTs in fragile refugee settings: from local coordination to vital protection and support during the Covid-19 pandemic

9 June 2020, Centre for Frugal Innovation in Africa
Only available in English

In times of crisis, it is crucial for policy makers and aid agencies to recognize and draw on locally established ICT platforms and community groups to facilitate critical information dissemination, and local exchange and support. Over time, to better appreciate ICTs and gender in fragile contexts, aid groups should consider both physical access to mobile devices, but also links to social norms, cultural ideas (and ideology) and the role of local actors. This will permit a more nuanced understanding of the evolving role of ICTs in refugee women’s empowerment, social protection, and broader integration.

[Africa] Multiplying crises: The coronavirus in Sudan

8 June 2020, European Council on Foreign Relations
Only available in English

Sudan’s transitional authorities are struggling to deal with a health system that is collapsing under the weight of covid-19. But the most dramatic social and economic impact of the disease might come from the effects that restrictions on movement will have on prices and food security.

[Aide internationale] MSF s’inquiète de la propagation alarmante de la Covid-19 en Haïti

5 juin 2020, Médecins Sans Frontières
Disponible uniquement en français

En réponse à la propagation croissante de la Covid-19 en Haïti, Médecins Sans Frontières a ouvert le 16 mai le centre de traitement Drouillard à Port-au-Prince, pour soigner les patients souffrant de formes sévères du virus. Depuis l’ouverture de ce centre, le nombre de personnes testées positives pour le coronavirus en Haïti a augmenté de façon spectaculaire, passant de 100 cas à plus de 2 600, et 50 décès. Avec seulement deux laboratoires dans le pays capables de réaliser les tests, le nombre de cas enregistrés est bien inférieur au nombre réel.

[Africa] Kenya and Covid: Pandemic Response Risks Excluding Minority Groups

28 May 2020, World Peace Foundation
Only available in English

Today, the divide between those who the Kenyan state recognizes and those it does not is being felt in new, potentially harmful ways as the Covid-19 response reinforces existing fault lines of power and access. This blog examines four risks for identity-based exclusion in Kenya’s pandemic response, and how ongoing struggles for inclusion will impact emergent struggles for social welfare as the Covid-19 crisis unfolds.

[Localisation] All eyes are on local humanitarian responders during Covid-19 – now they need support

28 May 2020, ODI
Only available in English

The humanitarian sector has grappled for decades with how best to support and fund local responders. Implementing this ‘localisation’ agenda has proved an uphill battle. Despite the Grand Bargain commitments of international non-governmental organisations, UN agencies and donors signed in 2016, the sector today is still primarily led and financed by these actors. Local responders are often relegated to subordinate implementors. The humanitarian response to Covid-19 has exposed the limits of the current system – but it could prove a catalyst for reform.

[Report] The Voice of Charities Facing COVID-19 Worldwide

28 May 2020, CAF America
Disponible aussi en français

From April 30 to May 6, in its second COVID-19 survey, CAF America polled 880 organizations worldwide to learn how the coronavirus global pandemic continues to impact their work. The organizations included in the survey represent 122 countries and 217 repeat respondents. The first survey conducted by CAF America involved 544 organizations representing 93 countries.

Key Findings Include:

Nearly all, 94.38% of the responding organizations, reported being negatively impacted by the coronavirus global pandemic.
Almost 15% of the organizations surveyed were forced to suspend their operations, as their activities cannot be carried out remotely. More than 60% have reported that they had to eliminate or suspend some of their regular programs and services.
Over 70% of the respondents have seen a significant reduction in the contributions received.

[Afrique] Ces onze Africaines et Africains qui contribuent à contenir la pandémie sur leur continent

22 mai 2020, Le Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

Que ce soit à l’OMS, au sein de l’UA ou à l’échelle nationale, ces personnalités tiennent, pour l’heure avec succès, en joue le coronavirus.

L’Afrique est pour l’heure le continent qui résiste le mieux à la pandémie liée au coronavirus. Ce continent, qui n’en est pas à sa première épidémie, a choisi pour faire face au Covid-19 des femmes et des hommes qui connaissent les virus et ont fait leurs preuves en santé publique. Portraits de onze personnalités qui ont élaboré des stratégies pour limiter « l’hécatombe » tant redoutée.

[Entretien] Coronavirus: quels défis pour les humanitaires?

14 mai 2020, RFI
Disponible uniquement en français

Alors que le Covid-19 poursuit sa progression, regard sur la façon dont la pandémie a changé la donne pour les professionnels de l’urgence, les particularités de cette crise par rapport à toutes celles connues jusqu’ici.

Invités :
Pierre Micheletti, médecin, président d’Action contre la Faim. Co-responsable du Master Politiques et Pratiques des Organisations internationales à l’Institut d’Études politiques de Grenoble. «Les humanitaires et la guerre, l’aventure ambiguë», éditions Parole
Alain Boinet, fondateur de l’Organisation, Solidarités Internationales. Animateur du site Défis humanitaires.

[Vidéo/Afrique] Coronavirus : l’Afrique doit-elle se préparer au pire ?

14 mai 2020, Le Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

Les scénarios catastrophes spéculant sur une hécatombe due à l’arrivée du Covid-19 en Afrique ne se sont pour l’instant pas produits. Décryptage en vidéo.

Pour le moment, force est de constater : l’Afrique résiste mieux que le reste du monde au coronavirus. Près de 70 000 cas déclarés le 14 mai et plus de 2 400 morts. Pourtant, dès le 18 mars, l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) avait mis en garde les dirigeants africains : le continent devait « se préparer au pire ». Arrivera-t-il ? Est-on trop catastrophiste quand on parle d’Afrique ? Pourquoi la vague anticipée ne semble pas submerger le continent ? Quel pourrait-être le pire des scénarios et comment l’éviter ? Eléments de réponse en vidéo.

[Africa] Surviving the COVID 19 pandemic: the view from a Ugandan surgeon and epidemiologist

12 May 2020, Olive Kobusingye
Only available in English

In managing the pandemic, Uganda seems to have checked many of the right boxes so far. Schools were closed, large gatherings banned, and some form of physical distancing adopted before Uganda registered its first case of COVID 19. The sole international airport was closed on March 23, 2020, a day after the first case was confirmed. Then followed a creeping lockdown – first stopping public transport, then private cars, and finally discouraging all non-essential movement, even on foot.

[Interview] An epidemiologist’s analysis of the Covid-19 crisis – Part 1

11 mai 2020, Médecins sans Frontières – CRASH
Disponible aussi en français

Crisis situation, response strategies, hydroxychloroquine, interventional epidemiology and the state of scientific research in Africa: Elba Rahmouni interviews Emmanuel Baron, Director of Epicentre, Médecins Sans Frontières.

The second part of the interview is available here.

[Aide internationale] Covid-19 – Mise en place par l’Union européenne d’un pont aérien humanitaire en direction de pays tiers

8 mai 2020, Ministère de l’Europe et des Affaires étrangères
Disponible uniquement en français

Dans le contexte d’urgence sanitaire issu de la pandémie de Covid-19, la France soutient pleinement l’initiative prise par l’Union européenne, en lien avec des ONG humanitaires notamment françaises et des acteurs humanitaires, de mise en place d’un pont aérien permettant l’acheminement de fret et de personnels humanitaires à destination de plusieurs pays confrontés à une crise humanitaire aiguë, prioritairement en Afrique, mais également en Asie et au Moyen-Orient.

[Afrique] Coronavirus : 50 millions de personnes menacées par la faim en Afrique de l’Ouest d’ici à quelques mois

21 avril 2020, Le Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

La pandémie de Covid-19, ajoutée aux problèmes de sécheresse et à l’insécurité dans la région, pourrait faire exploser le nombre de personnes en crise alimentaire, alerte l’ONG Oxfam.

[Afrique] Coronavirus : en Afrique, des mesures d’exception qui menacent les libertés publiques

13 avril 2020, Le Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

Violences policières, interdiction des manifestations, report des scrutins, contrôle des médias… Dans plusieurs pays, des ONG de défense des droits humains s’inquiètent.

[Mobilisation] When the humanitarian response is the biggest threat

13 April 2020, Centre for Humanitarian Leadership
Only available in English

5 essential steps for action during COVID-19 – The sector must urgently develop a strategy and operational response without its greatest collective strength: the ability to mobilise, deploy and coordinate human resources.

[Afrique] Coronavirus : en Afrique, « des mesures sont prises en urgence alors qu’on ne les imaginait pas possibles »

8 avril 2020, Le Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

Le journaliste Jean-Philippe Rémy a répondu à vos questions sur l’impact de l’épidémie due au nouveau coronavirus sur le continent africain.

[Opinion] « Le confinement généralisé est profondément inégalitaire »

6 avril 2020, Marianne
Disponible uniquement en français

Interrogé par le magazine Marianne, Rony Brauman explique que la croyance en l’élimination des épidémies a fait écran à la vigilance des organisations internationales et des États. Il développe sa vision de la crise sanitaire que nous traversons et s’exprime sur les mesures prises pour y répondre. 

[Tribune] Humanitaire : maintenir l’attention au-delà de nos frontières

6 avril 2020, Alternatives économiques
Disponible uniquement en français

Le président, Pierre Micheletti, et le directeur général d’Action Contre la Faim, Jean-François Riffaud, plaident pour que les mobilisations nationales des pays riches ne se fassent pas au détriment des pays pauvres et des réfugiés, particulièrement vulnérables

[Mobilisation] Demande de mesures contraignantes pour assurer la protection de tous les mineurs non accompagnés dans le contexte de l’épidémie du Covid-19

6 avril 2020
Disponible uniquement en français

36 Associations et syndicats s’associent à 88 avocats d’enfants et adressent une lettre ouverte au Premier Ministre pour l’alerter sur la situation dramatique de nombreux mineurs isolés qui, malgré les mesures prises par le gouvernement, continuent à être laissés sans protection.

[Afrique] En Afrique, les opérations humanitaires fragilisées par les mesures de confinement

4 avril 2020, Le Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

L’ONU demande aux gouvernements d’accorder aux travailleurs humanitaires le même statut qu’aux personnels de santé afin de faciliter leurs déplacements.

[Afrique] Coronavirus : l’Afrique au défi de son système de santé

3 avril 2020, Le Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

Masques, respirateurs, lits, personnels formés à la réanimation… Le continent tente d’augmenter ses capacités de prise en charge de malades du Covid-19.

[Declaration] Global Health Advocates’ Statement on the COVID-19 outbreak

2 April 2020, Action Santé Mondiale
Also available in French

Global Health Advocates France (GHA) stands with the victims of COVID-19 and their families worldwide. During this difficult period, GHA’s team is working full time from home and adapting its advocacy efforts to the current context. As a civil society organisation, we are worried about the immediate humanitarian impact in hardest hit parts of the world and are evaluating the longer-term impact of existing health, development and research policies. Taking into account COVID-19’s comorbidity with other diseases, it disproportionately impacts those who are most vulnerable: the elderly, the homeless, prisoners, migrants denied access to healthcare, and those with existing health conditions such as high blood pressure, or weak immune system because of malnutrition, HIV and tuberculosis. The pandemic requires a robust and all-encompassing public health response from governments that, first and foremost, focuses on the implementation of effective epidemic control measures to slow down or halt the further spread of the virus.

[Afrique] Coronavirus : la crise humanitaire au Sahel menace de devenir “ingérable” (ONU)

2 avril 2020, AfricaNews
Disponible uniquement en français

La crise humanitaire dans la région du Sahel central menace de devenir “ingérable”, avec plus de cinq millions de personnes confrontées à une grave insécurité alimentaire alors que le coronavirus se propage, a averti jeudi le Programme alimentaire mondial (PAM).

[Afrique] Scénario catastrophe pour l’Afrique désormais touchée par le coronavirus

1er avril 2020, Le Figaro
Disponible uniquement en français

INFOGRAPHIE – S’il n’est pas aidé, ce continent, où le confinement est impossible, risque de servir de réservoir au virus, qui reviendra alors dans les pays du Nord.

[Entretien/Co-fondateur] Jean-Christophe Rufin : « Le coronavirus méritait discussion, mais elle n’a pas eu lieu faute de moyens »

1er avril 2020, France Culture
Disponible uniquement en français

Alors que le coronavirus se répand comme une traînée de poudre dans le monde, les États s’organisent pour face à la pandémie. A l’échelle internationale, la solidarité entre États est mise à rude épreuve. Comment apporter une réponse globalisée et coordonnée à la gestion de cette crise ?

[Opinion] Force For Good Podcasts #2 – Alain Boinet, fondateur de Solidarités International

1er avril 2020, Force For Good
Disponible uniquement en français

Alain Boinet, fondateur de Solidarités International nous livre aujourd’hui son point de vue et ses recommandations solidaires sur la crise sanitaire du coronavirus.

[Entretien] Le Covid-19, catastrophe naturelle ? Entretien avec Sandrine Revet

Avril 2020, SciencesPo – CERI
Disponible uniquement en français

Propos recueillis par Miriam Périer – « Même si le virus est d’origine naturelle, cette pandémie n’est pas plus « naturelle » que les catastrophes provoquées par des tsunamis, des ouragans ou des inondations. Cela fait longtemps désormais que les sciences sociales ont permis de montrer que les catastrophes se produisent quand un phénomène, qui peut être d’origine naturelle ou technologique, rencontre une société rendue vulnérable par des décisions politiques, des choix économiques ou des formes d’organisation sociale. »

[Statement] Global Health Advocates’ Statement on the COVID-19 outbreak

April 2020, CERAH
Disponible également en français

Global Health Advocates France (GHA) stands with the victims of COVID-19 and their families worldwide. During this difficult period, GHA’s team is working full time from home and adapting its advocacy efforts to the current context. As a civil society organisation, we are worried about the immediate humanitarian impact in hardest hit parts of the world and are evaluating the longer-term impact of existing health, development and research policies. Taking into account COVID-19’s comorbidity with other diseases, it disproportionately impacts those who are most vulnerable: the elderly, the homeless, prisoners, migrants denied access to healthcare, and those with existing health conditions such as high blood pressure, or weak immune system because of malnutrition, HIV and tuberculosis. The pandemic requires a robust and all-encompassing public health response from governments that, first and foremost, focuses on the implementation of effective epidemic control measures to slow down or halt the further spread of the virus.

[Africa] Analytical Brief: Africa at Risk? The Global Response to COVID-19 Pandemic

April 2020, Bulletin FrancoPaix, Chaire Raoul-Dandurand
Only available in English

Jens Pedersen – Since the global spread of SARS-Cov-2, the virus causing COVID-19 disease, has grown into a global pandemic, media has not been short on commentary of just what this may mean for the future of our global order. These have differed from obituaries of globalization1, to questioning the future of multilateral institutions2, to the virus being “the great equalizer.”3 Rather than speculative attempts to predict global political and economic consequences in the midst of a pandemic without any fixed timeframe, we should focus on what it reveals about the global order as it currently stands.

[Opinion] Between COVID-19 and humanitarian crises: which one to choose?

Prof. Karl Blanchet, Member of Humanitarian Alternatives‘ Scientific Council, Director of CERAH & Co-director of InZone
April 2020, CERAH
Disponible également en français

It is obvious that responding to the COVID-19 pandemic is the key priority for all governments in the world. This week, more than 5,880 cases have been confirmed in Africa but we all think, as well as Dr Tedros, General Director at the World Health Organisation, that this figure does not represent the reality on the ground due to the fact that the number of cases will be under reported because there is no systematic testing of suspected cases.

[Standards] COVID-19 guidance based on humanitarian standards

April 2020, SPHERE
Disponible également en français

The Sphere Handbook and the other Humanitarian Standards Partnership (HSP) initiatives offer guidance on the minimum response all crisis-affected people have the right to expect. They establish what needs to be in place for affected populations to survive and recover with dignity.

In this page, you will be able to find Sphere and its partners’ guidance on the COVID-19 response in multiple languages (below), additional resources based on humanitarian standards, and information on upcoming learning events.

[Mobilisation] COVID-19 pandemic: Solthis calls for the mobilization of financial and technical actors for sub-Saharan Africa

31 March 2020, Solthis
Disponible également en français

Contributing to the prevention, diagnosis and management of cases of COVID19, to the protection of health professionals and to promote the continuity of access to essential healthcare services: Solthis wishes to carry out these actions, but will not be able to do so without the support of the international community.

[Méditerranée] Malgré l’épidémie de Covid-19, une ONG annonce la reprise imminente des opérations de secours de migrants en Méditerranée

31 mars 2020, FranceInfo
Disponible uniquement en français

Le bateau humanitaire “Alan Kurdi” sera le seul à opérer au large de la Libye, en raison de la pandémie de coronavirus.

[Moyen-Orient] À Gaza, l’épidémie de Covid-19 s’ajoute à la crise humanitaire

31 Mars 2020, Euronews
Disponible uniquement en français

Dans la bande de Gaza, l’épidémie de Covid-19 pourrait conduire à une catastrophe, craignent des organisations humanitaires.

[Afrique] Covid-19, une chambre d’urgence made in Afrique

30 mars 2020, MondAfrique
Disponible uniquement en français

La Chambre d’Urgence Bio-Sécurisée pour épidémies (CUBE) a été inventée pendant l’épidémie Ebola en Afrique de l’Ouest par l’ONG ALIMA et son partenaire Sécurotec, société spécialisée dans le risque nucléaire, chimique et bactériologique.

[Historical insight] COVID-19: When history has no lessons

30 March 2020, History Workshop
Only available in English

This piece is part of HWO’s feature on ‘Apocalypse Then and Now’. The feature brings together radical reflections and historic perspectives on catastrophe and calamity. How have crises (both real and imagined), and responses to them, shaped our world?

[Capitalisation] Épidémies, pandémies et enjeux humanitaires:leçons tirées de quelques crises sanitaires 

29 mars 2020, Groupe URD
Disponible uniquement en français

Depuis plus de 20 ans, le Groupe URD évalue des réponses humanitaires et des gestions de crise qui ont presque toujours une composante « santé ». Dans tous ces contextes, de l’Afghanistan à la Colombie en passant par le Moyen-Orient l’Afrique et les Caraïbes, nous avons ainsi observé comment les systèmes de santé réagissaient aux crises, avec d’un côté la médecine de guerre et de catastrophe1, de l’autre la santé publique classique2, et enfin la gestion des crises sanitaires majeures de type choléra et Ebola3. Nos travaux sur les effondrements, mis en exergue récemment dans notre revue Humanitaires en mouvement4, montrent combien il faut prendre au sérieux de telles crises sanitaires5 dont les effets transfrontaliers, voire globaux, peuvent être catastrophiques.
Dans le contexte de la pandémie COViD-19, nous avons donc décidé de réunir toutes les leçons tirées de nos travaux sur les crises sanitaires majeures et de produire le présent document de capitalisation.

[Opinion/Afrique] « Il faut agir au plus vite si nous voulons éviter l’hécatombe en Afrique » : l’appel de Denis Mukwege, Prix Nobel de la paix

28 mars 2020, Le Monde
Disponible uniquement en français

Le gynécologue congolais, Prix Nobel de la paix, alerte sur l’urgence de la situation sanitaire pour le continent le plus pauvre de la planète.

[Afrique] Afrique de l’Ouest: se concentrer sur les plus vulnérables et tirer les leçons du passé

27 mars 2020, Médecins sans Frontières
Disponible uniquement en français

Aujourd’hui, sur 54 pays africains, 43 sont touchés par l’épidémie. En Afrique de l’Ouest et centrale le Burkina Faso, le Sénégal, le Cameroun, qui comptent les plus grands nombres de cas, ont déjà franchi le stade de transmission locale et sont différemment préparés à répondre. Le Dr Dorian Job, responsable des programmes Afrique de l’Ouest pour MSF, à Dakar, fait le point sur la situation et les priorités à ce stade.

[Afrique] L’ONU salue la proclamation de cessez-le-feu dans plusieurs pays en conflits

27 mars 2020, Le Temps
Disponible uniquement en français

Le mouvement général de cessez-le-feu – une mesure évoquée aux Philippines, au Cameroun, au Yémen et en Syrie – est en voie d’être soutenu par des résolutions au Conseil de sécurité et à l’Assemblée générale.

[Afrique] COVID-19 : « L’Afrique manque de moyens, mais a une expérience des épidémies »

27 mars 2020, We Demain
Disponible uniquement en français

Si l’Afrique manque de moyens financiers pour affronter la crise du coronavirus, elle bénéficie d’une certaine expérience dans la gestion des épidémies, analyse Jean-Théophile Banzouzi, directeur exécutif de l’ONG Médecins d’Afrique.

[Perspective historique] L’épopée Mérieux / Lapeyssonnie pour la vaccination « coup de poing » contre la méningite au Brésil en 1974

27 mars 2020, L’Humanitaire dans tous ses états
Disponible uniquement en français

Cette histoire n’a rien à voir avec l’actuelle pandémie de COVID-19 mais il y est pourtant question d’une lutte acharnée au dénouement extraordinaire, fruit d’un concours de circonstances.

En 1974, une épidémie foudroyante de méningite cérébrospinale frappe le Brésil. 4000 morts à São Paulo en quelques jours. Étrangement, la souche est de type A, de type africain. Elle est bien connue d’un médecin militaire français, grand épidémiologiste, coureur de brousse et pourfendeur de bureaucrates, Léon Lapeyssonnie (1915-2001). Fervent adepte du docteur Eugène Jamot (1876-1937), médecin colonial, vainqueur de la maladie du sommeil (Trypanosomiase) en Afrique Occidentale, Lapeyssonnie consacrera sa vie à la lutte contre la méningite, le choléra et la « trypano ».

[Entretien] « On a cru pouvoir éradiquer les maladies infectieuses mais c’était une chimère »

25 mars 2020, Le Temps
Disponible uniquement en français

Interviewé par le journal Le Temps, Rony Brauman s’exprime sur la pandémie de COVID-19. Il dénonce notamment le manque de préparation des systèmes de santé pour faire face à une telle crise sanitaire.

[Entretien/Afrique] Augustin Augier : « On a besoin de tout le monde pour enrayer le coronavirus en Afrique »

25 Mars 2020, Les Echos
Disponible uniquement en français

Interviewé par les Echos Augustin Augier, Directeur de l’ONG Alima s’exprime sur l’arrivée de l’épidémie de COVID-19 en Afrique.

[Entretien/Afrique] Entretien avec Nicolas Mouly – Responsable du service Urgences et ouvertures d’Alima

25 mars 2020, Alima
Disponible uniquement en français

Au Centre hospitalier universitaire de Fann à Dakar (Sénégal), les équipes d’ALIMA participent à la prise en charge des personnes affectées par le COVID-19. Nicolas Mouly, Responsable du Services des Urgences et Ouvertures d’ALIMA explique le circuit de tri des patients suspects.

[Mobilisation] L’ONU lance un plan mondial de réponse humanitaire à la pandémie COVID-19

25 mars 2020, Unicef
Disponible uniquement en français

Déclarations d’Henrietta Fore, directrice générale d’UNICEF et de Sébastien Lyon, directeur général d’UNICEF France.

En quelques mois seulement, le COVID-19 a bouleversé la vie des enfants du monde entier. Des centaines de millions d’entre eux ne sont pas scolarisés. Les parents et les personnes qui s’occupent des enfants ont perdu leur emploi. Les frontières ont été fermées. […] Plus de la moitié des élèves du monde entier ont été touchés par des fermetures d’écoles dans au moins 120 pays. […] Nous savons, grâce aux précédentes urgences sanitaires, que les enfants sont davantage exposés à l’exploitation, à la violence et aux abus lorsque les écoles sont fermées, que des emplois sont perdus et que la liberté de mouvement est restreinte. […] UNICEF à lui seul lance un appel de 405 millions de dollars US pour notre intervention dans les pays en situation d’urgence. Nous demandons également 246,6 millions de dollars supplémentaires pour notre intervention dans les pays non urgents. Notre appel total s’élève donc à 651,6 millions de dollars US.

[Sécurité alimentaire] Conséquences de la pandémie au COVID-19 pour la Sécurité Alimentaire et la Nutrition (SAN)

24 mars 2020, HLPE Groupe d’experts de haut niveau
Disponible uniquement en français

Compte tenu des délais très courts liés à la demande urgente du CSA, et du fait que la crise actuelle est d’une ampleur sans précédent, évoluant rapidement et avec de nombreuses inconnues, ce document doit être considéré comme un premier document de synthèse visant à informer le CSA des conséquences prévisibles du COVID-19 sur la sécurité alimentaire et la nutrition (SAN), tel qu’elles sont actuellement perçues par le HLPE. À la suite de la discussion avec le Bureau et le Groupe consultatif du CSA, le HLPE prévoit de nouvelles mises à jour de ce document à mesure de l’évolution de la situation, ainsi que l’intégration de cette question dans le prochain rapport du HLPE: «Sécurité alimentaire et nutrition: exposé des faits global à l’horizon 2030».

[Opinion] L’humanitaire face au coronavirus

24 mars 2020, Défis humanitaires
Disponible uniquement en français

Alain Boinet revient sur l’urgence sanitaire et humanitaire sans précédent. La priorité des organisations humanitaires internationales est d’identifier les pays, les territoires et les populations les plus vulnérables au virus. Au risque d’être réducteur, l’Afrique et les concentrations de réfugiés et de déplacés représentent la menace la plus élevée. Mais n’oublions pas l’Inde, le Pakistan, le Bangladesh et d’autres encore.

[Afrique] Coronavirus : L’Afrique, désormais touchée par la pandémie, risque d’avoir bien du mal à faire face

23 mars 2020, 20 Minutes
Disponible uniquement en français

Environ un millier de cas confirmés de COVID-19 sont répertoriés dans quarante pays d’Afrique. Longtemps épargnées par le coronavirus, ces populations risquent d’être durement touchées car leurs systèmes de santé et leurs États sont souvent fragiles. Deux spécialistes d’ONG présentes dans ces pays expliquent quels sont les défis de ces pays et combien la solidarité internationale sera importante dans les prochains jours.

[Opinion] Coronavirus: moins d’humanitaire, plus de politique!

23 mars 2020, Le Temps
Disponible uniquement en français.

Nous devons sortir de la pensée humanitaire qui apporte avant tout des réponses techniques et repenser en des termes politiques le bien public, la solidarité et la justice sociale, écrit Julie Billaud, professeure adjointe d’anthropologie à l’Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement

[Webinar] « Behind the headlines : How will COVID-19 impact crisis zones ?

20 mars 2020, The New Humanitarian
Disponible uniquement en anglais

Une conférence organisée par The New Humanitarian, avec la participation de :

  • Jeremy Konyndyk – Seior Policy Fellow, Center for Global Development
  • Suze van Meegen – Advocacy Manager, Norwegian refugee Council in Somalia
  • Karl Blanchet – Director of the Centre for Education and Research in Humanitarian Action
  • Virginie Lefèvre – Promgram and Partnerships Coordinator, Amel Association.

Un article de synthèse et d’analyse sera publié dans les prochains jours sur le site du The New Humanitarian.

[Partenaires] La Fondation de la Croix-Rouge française s’engage face à l’épidémie de COVID-19

20 mars 2020, Fondation Croix-Rouge française
Also available in English

L’apparition d’un nouveau coronavirus (COVID-19) en Chine toute fin 2019 et sa propagation mondiale ont conduit à une crise sanitaire mondiale inédite. Pour répondre à ce défi de santé publique mondiale, la Fondation Croix-Rouge s’engage et lance aujourd’hui un appel à candidatures pour une bourse postdoctorale de recherche.

[Perspective historique] Le virus et la Nation – regard historique sur la santé publique chinoise en temps de COVID-19

16 mars 2020, AOC Media
Disponible uniquement en français

Au moment où l’Europe est devenue l’épicentre de l’épidémie de COVID-19, le modèle autoritaire chinois est cité en exemple pour son efficacité dans la gestion de la crise. La forte soumission des institutions scientifiques au pouvoir politique s’inscrit dans la continuité des épidémies de SRAS et de H1N1, et plus largement d’une véritable politisation de la santé par le maoïsme. Ce qui suscite toutefois un refus croissant des acteurs de la santé publique.

[Historical insight] History of Pandemics

14 mars 2020, Visual Capitalist
Only available in English

Throughout history, as humans spread across the world, infectious diseases have been a constant companion. Even in this modern era, outbreaks are nearly constant. Here are some of history’s most deadly pandemics from the Antonine Plague to COVID-19.

[Mobilisation] Grèce. Les réfugié·e·s doivent de toute urgence être protégés de la pandémie de COVID-19

Mars 2020, Amnesty International
Disponible uniquement en français

Alors que le monde fait face à la crise de la pandémie de COVID-19, les risques pour les réfugié·e·s sur les îles grecques se multiplient à chaque instant. Des milliers de personnes âgées, de personnes souffrant de maladies chroniques, d’enfants, de femmes enceintes, de jeunes mères et de personnes souffrant d’un handicap y vivent dans des conditions de surpopulation dangereuses, et font maintenant également face à la menace de la pandémie de COVID-19, dont les conséquences seraient catastrophiques pour les personnes confinées dans des camps. En plus de protéger le reste de la population, le gouvernement grec doit immédiatement prendre des mesures pour protéger les réfugié·e·s de la pandémie et les conduire en lieu sûr.

[Droit] « Ils ne mouraient pas tous, mais tous étaient frappés » Le Coronavirus révélateur des ambiguïtés de l’appréhension juridique de la vulnérabilité

Mars 2020, Revue des droits et libertés fondamentaux
Disponible uniquement en français

Communément employée désormais en sciences sociales et par le langage juridique, la vulnérabilité peut se définir comme l’état d’une personne qui, en raison d’un contexte donné, ne peut, en droit ou en fait, jouir de l’autonomie suffisante pour exercer pleinement ses droits fondamentaux. Ainsi définie, la vulnérabilité résulte d’une interaction qui entraîne une atteinte aux droits fondamentaux et justifie l’adoption de dispositifs protecteurs, afin de garantir, notamment, l’intégrité physique, la sécurité de la personne ou le respect du principe d’égalité. En d’autres termes, la vulnérabilité renvoie à un risque de fragilité ou de blessure causée par une situation relationnelle, qui nécessite une protection du droit.