To download the summary in a PDF version please click here.
Thomas Fouquet – Institute of African Worlds – IMAF
How can humanitarian rhetoric be mobilised in the context of civic struggles in the Souths and how can such mobilisations call out to humanitarian NGOs from the North? Thomas Fouquet invites us to reflect upon this interwoven issue, as he retraces the first media and political successes of the Senegalese movement Y en a marre [Enough is enough]. Despite presumably having little to do with humanitarian action, such a movement may prefigure a new way for Western NGOs to rally up with the dynamics which, in the Souths, are in line with the wish expressed by many of them, namely to be more locally rooted and to rely on endogenous forces.
Jean François Mattei – French Red Cross Fund
The recent earthquake, or rather the succession of earthquakes in Nepal, confirms the fact: humanitarian action is increasingly subject to criticism. The charge of “humanitarian circus”, willingly uttered in the media – whether founded or exaggerated and therefore itself debatable – challenges the humanitarian community. The founding moment of this criticism is undoubtedly the 2004 tsunami in Southeast Asia. Between these two events, the 2010 earthquake in Haiti did not escape this “questioning” that Jean-François Mattei addresses here in terms of ethics. An ethic of action that intends to apply for other disasters, which will unfortunately occur. In short, by revisiting a paroxysmal crisis, the president of the French Red Cross Fund invites us to a “prospective view” about the current and future challenges of humanitarian action.
Jean-François Delfraissy – Academy of Sciences
Benoît Miribel – Mérieux Foundation/Action contre la Faim
After more than 11,000 deaths, according to the WHO, and about 30,000 infected people in West Africa, the spread of the Ebola virus has finally decreased since the summer of 2015. Why did it take so much time and loss of human lives before this last Ebola epidemic in West Africa was contained? Beyond the impact on human lives, we can see that it is a whole health, social and economic system that has been struck by such epidemics. Are we condemned to put up with them or can we contain these epidemics, which disregard borders between species and territories?
Michael Edelstein – Centre on Global Health Security
David L. Heymann – London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Epidemiologists following the Ebola virus since its emergence in 1976 and involved in the heart of the response to this last and most terrible epidemic, Michael Edelstein and David L. Heymann realise a synthesis of medical data available in July 2015. They thus help us to better understand the dynamics of this virus, this “enemy” which still faces scientific and humanitarian actors, and the measures implemented or upgraded to cope with it. To get to the “end game”, in relation to this outbreak and anticipate other health crises of this magnitude.
Jean-Hervé Bradol – Centre de réflexion sur l’action et les savoirs humanitaires (CRASH)/Médecins sans Frontières
If MSF has held a preponderant position in the response to the Ebola crisis, it owes it just as much to its intervention capacities as to its capacity for criticism. The following article by Jean-Hervé Bradol embodies perfectly the latter in pointing to the issues that appeared on the occasion of this epidemic.
Jean-Pierre Veyrenche – Consultant for the United Nations
In his story of his field experiences Jean-Pierre Veyrenche brings us close to people by giving us the opportunity to get a feel for the atmosphere that pervaded Liberia during the height of the epidemic at a time when the country was gripped by silence and fear.
Aboubacar Sidiki Diakité – Gamal Abdel Nasser University of Conakry
Aboubacar Sidiki Diakité talks to us about Guinea’s handling of the Ebola crisis – an opportunity for us to take the pulse of the second most seriously affected country by Ebola in West Africa, and for this front-line player to make a bravely critical analysis of the weakness of his country’s health system while bolstering advocacy for strengthening it.
Gaëlle Faure, Jérôme Besnier, Pauline Lavirotte, Magalie Vairetto – Handicap International
Jean-Baptiste Richardier – Handicap International
This article illustrates two of the ambitions of our review. First, encourage and promote the production of knowledge from the humanitarian sector itself where it is not lacking, while the sector is too often relegated to the role of “actor”: actors think, and well, let it be known! Secondly, explore and unveil thematics too little developed. This is the case here with this analysis, performed near the end of the epidemic, of the project platform Ambulance and Decontamination initiated by the NGO Handicap International in Sierra Leone.
Jake Dunning – Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health (Oxford)
Christophe Longuet – Fondation Mérieux
Alex Salam – National Institute for Health Research
The authors of this text have been involved in caring for patients and conducting clinical research in Ebola Treatment Centres (ETCs) in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone at different periods between October 2014 and July 2015. Focusing on therapeutic research during infectious disease outbreaks, they share here their experiences and reflections on the encounter between science and humanitarian action that took place in the ETCs of West Africa.