Pascale Hancart Petitet • Medical anthropologist, Institut de recherche pour le développement
The author’s career perfectly illustrates the hybridisation at work between the worlds of humanitarian action and research. Drawing on her experiences and various projects carried out in Laos, Pascale Hancart Petitet presents her reflections and analysis of this “dual commitment”. Continue reading
It is a parallel space and time, a countercurrent running against the flow of passers-by strolling along the sunny Parisian canals that directors Hind Meddeb and Thim Naccache set out to film in the summer of 2016. This socially aware documentary provides insights into the daily life of exiles fleeing from wars in Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Guinea, Nigeria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran and Pakistan. Forced to sleep on the streets on their arrival, these men and women congregate in makeshift camps around Stalingrad metro station, where their daily lives are punctuated by police raids and alterations to the urban space the City and State authorities have ordered to prevent foreigners gathering in public spaces. Paris Stalingrad depicts the police brutality and structural violence to which refugees in France are subjected, alongside the shortcomings of a dysfunctional administration and the abdication by the public services of their responsibilities, offloading them onto NGOs often resigned to the attacks being made on the duty of solidarity that they stand for. Against this disturbing background, we discover the harsh reality of life on the streets but also – amongst the anger, bitterness and shared moments of complicity – the solidarity of local residents as well as the resistance and resilience of a struggling community. Paris Stalingrad is not a comprehensive survey of the experiences of exiles in France, but rather a portrayal of these invisible people which questions, without providing all the answers, the role and the responsibility of a State that is now defending its borders from within the city itself.
Capucine Coninx • Coordination/Communication of Alternatives Humanitaires
Translated from the French by Fay Guerry
The Covid-19 pandemic has forced many reviews, including ours, to adapt. Whereas Humanitarian Alternatives upended its editorial schedule to devote itself to the subject, the excellent Questions internationales review maintained its programme for an issue devoted to the Middle East. This is to be commended, since the “world event” that was playing out could not lead us to neglect all of the other subjects of interest which remained as relevant as ever in the world turned upside down by the virus. Continue reading
Abstract, by the authors
Despite a long history of maternal health programs, the quality of obstetric care and access to facility services remain inadequate in West Africa. Although several qualitative studies have described human resource and facility constraints impacting pregnancy care and the violent or disrespectful care of women during labour, the reasons behind these behaviours have not been elucidated. In order to understand midwives’ experiences with caregiving, in 2017-2018 we conducted interviews with twenty-four professional midwives in Benin and Burkina Faso and examined their perspectives on their profession, obstetric practices and personal lives. By including emotional, sensorial, linguistic and social elements, this paper shows important discordances between the proposals made by programs (such as rural postings and financial disbursement projects) and midwives’ socio-emotional duties and economic roles. The study also shows that midwives’ attitudes towards their patients are linked to their considering childbirth to be a moral act. Midwives’ mistreatment of women in labour corresponds to constant shifts between technical obstetric skills and value judgements concerning expressions of pain, sexuality and desire. In addition, midwives justify their violent practices through the urgency of the situation, especially during crowning. The provision of care and the effective implementation of maternal programs cannot be improved without taking these justifications into account and without constructing dialogues enabling midwives to reflect on their social and emotional constraints, their relationship to the sexuality of childbirth, and the reasons for their practices. We advocate for more methodical research and for midwifery training to include in-depth case studies such as this one which start from the practical difficulties midwives face, making it possible to improve the midwifery profession as it is lived and not as it is imagined by fragmented, ungrounded programs.
In a Darwinian perspective, Michel Joli develops a conception of global fraternity as a benefit of evolution, a “common good of humanity”. It is the oldest manifestation of the social instinct that ensures the protection of the weakest, without distinction between groups. In this sense, it is an absolute necessity to preserve both the diversity and the unity of our species. Fraternity, a major anthropological asset, is indeed the only universal characteristic that unites all humans.
In this period of global crisis, the author highlights the urgency of taking fraternity out of the storeroom of accessories and ideologies, and to call upon it in its globality as an essential argument (and tool) to confront the excesses of capitalism. This political, philosophical, and ecological essay, well-documented and committed, opens up tangible avenues of inquiry to build our future society on new foundations.
Translated from the French by Juliet Powys
What is the story of this man who carried the ATD Quart Monde mission, alongside others, for forty years, in the footsteps its founder, Joseph Wresinski?
Born in Switzerland, Eugen Brand first encountered the Movement at the age of 22 and became a permanent volunteer. He lived amongst families in great poverty and learned alongside them. This commitment would take him to Créteil, New York, Basel, Peru, Bolivia…
By way of these episodes in the life of Eugen Brand, his doubts and convictions, and his moments of companionship with Father Joseph, a history of the ATD Quart Monde is sketched out, in its trials and errors and its developments.
In this series of interviews, which would lead to a great friendship, Michel Sauquet and Eugen Brand exchange and share their experiences and questionings. Following Eugen Brand, this book enables us to understand and claim that the “disenfranchised” are the source and the motor of great transformations to be carried out within society.
Translated from the French by Juliet Powys
The article below is a slightly modified version of the foreword that Boris Martin wrote for Bertrand Bréqueville’s book. Here, as with the work in question, Boris Martin expresses his opinions as an independent author and editor, and not as the editor-in-chief of the Humanitarian Alternatives review.
I could only take it as a compliment that Bertrand Bréqueville was so inspired by L’Adieu à l’humanitaire ?(1)Boris Martin, L’Adieu à l’humanitaire ? Les ONG au défi de l’offensive néolibérale, Éditions Charles Léopold Mayer, 2015. (“Farewell to humanitarian aid?”) that he resolved to tackle the issue in greater depth in L’humanitaire sous l’emprise du néolibéralisme (“Humanitarian aid caught in the grips of neoliberalism”). For an author, it is immensely satisfying to see one’s work ignite a spark that not only sheds light on one’s own musings but also kindles new ones. To then be asked by Bertrand Bréqueville to write the foreword for his book was an honour.
|￪1||Boris Martin, L’Adieu à l’humanitaire ? Les ONG au défi de l’offensive néolibérale, Éditions Charles Léopold Mayer, 2015.|
Lâm Duc Hiên is a child of the Mekong. Born in Laos in 1966, he had to flee the country in 1975. He then spent two years in refugee camps in Thailand. In 1977, he arrived in France where he experienced the transit camps and red tape and attempted to (re)build his life. Art provided a means to channel the energy that consumed him while photography gave him a better understanding of the suffering of others. In 1990, he crossed paths with humanitarian workers, which was the beginning of a long companionship, from Équilibre to Médecins du Monde, from Romania to Rwanda, from the cause of children to the cause of women victims of violence. But his native country and childhood river always called him back: in 2009, he published the images (with words by Philippe Franchini) from his 4,200 km boat-hitchhiking trip along the Mekong to meet people living on the banks of this mythical river that flows through Thailand, Cambodia, China and, of course, Laos (Mékong, histoires d’hommes, Chêne). He has received several awards for his work, most notably the Leica Prize, the Grand Prix Européen de la Ville de Vevey in 1995 and first prize at the World Press Photo Awards in 2001 for his portraits published in Gens d’Irak. It was to Iraq that he returned. Continue reading